|Region||Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)|
|Area|| 2,599.4 km²|
Benguet is a province located at the southern end of the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR). It is bound on the North by Ilocos Sur and Mountain Province, on the East by Ifugao and Nueva Vizcaya, on the West by La Union, and on the South by Pangasinan. It has 13 municipalities and 140 barangays.
The province is currently headed by Governor Nestor B. Fongwan and Vice-Governor Crescencio C. Pacalso. The lone district’s current representative is Congressman Ronald M. Cosalan.
Municipalities, Barangays, and Mayors
Atok: Abiang, Caliking, Cattubo, Naguey, Paoay, Pasdong, Poblacion, and Tupdac
- Hon. Peter B. Alos
Bakun: Ampusongan, Bagu, Dalipey, Gambang, Kayapa, Poblacion, and Sinacbat
- Hon. Marcelo B. Contada
Bokod: Ambuclao, Bila, Bobok, Daclan, Ekip, Karao, Nawal, Pito, Poblacion, and Tikey
- Hon. Mauricio T. Macay
Buguias: Abatan, Amgaleyguey, Amlimay, Baculongan Norte, Baculongan Sur, Bangao, Buyacaoan, Calamagan, Catlubong, Lengaoan, Loo, Natubleng, Poblacion, and Sebang
- Hon. Melchor D. Diclas
Itogon: Ampucao, Dalupirip, Gumatdang, Loacan, Tinongdan, Tuding, Ucab, and Virac
- Hon. Oscar M. Camantilles
Kabayan: Adaoay, Anchukey, Ballay, Bashoy, Batan, Duacan, Eddet, Gusaran, Kabayan Barrio, Lusod, Pacso, Poblacion, and Tawangan
- Hon. Faustino M. Aquisan
Kapangan: Balakbak, Beleng-Belis, Boklaoan, Cayapes, Central, Cuba, Datakan, Gadang, Gaswiling, Labueg, Paykek, Pongayan, Pudong, Sagubo, and Taba-ao
- Hon. Roberto Canuto
Kibungan: Bado, Lubo, Madaymen, Palina, Poblacion, Sagpat, and Tacadang
- Hon. Benito D. Siadto
La Trinidad: Alapang, Alno, Ambiong, Bahong, Balili, Beckel, Betag, Binong, Cruz, Pico, Poblacion, Puguis, Shilan, Tawang, and Wangal
- Hon. Greg Abalos
Mankayan: Balili, Bedbed, Bulalacao, Cabitin, Colalo, Guinaoang, Paco, Poblacion, Sapid, Suyoc, Tabio, and Taneg
- Hon. Materno Luspian
Sablan: Bagong, Balluay, Bangan, Banengbeng, Bayabas, Kamong, Pappa, and Poblacion
- Hon. Arthur C. Baldo
Tuba: Ansagan, Camp 4, Camp 3, Camp 1, Nangalisan, Poblacion, San Pascual, Tabaan Norte, Tabaan Sur, Tadiangan, Taloy Norte, Taloy Sur, and Twin Peaks
- Hon. Florencio V. Bentrez
Tublay: Ambassador, Ambongdolan, Ba-ayan, Basil, Caponga, Daclan, Tublay Central, and Tuel
- Hon. Ruben E. Paoad
There are two versions for the origin of the provincial name “Benguet” – Ibaloi version and Kankana-ey version.
The Ibaloi version narrates that La Trinidad is remembered to be a fertile valley with a wide lake at the center. Hence, people lived on the bounties of the lake for agriculture and for the wild animals living in & around the lake. During the rainy months of the year or the “angchap” (cold season), people use a certain type of head-covering to protect themselves from the cool winds & fog. This head covering in the old Nabaloi dialect is generally called “benget” (the ‘e’ pronounced as [Ə] as in the ‘u’ in burn), which means a covering from the head down to the neck with a wide opening for the eyes. Other people use the “duvong”, which is made of the hide of a “motit” (civet cat), to protect themselves from the rain, cold, and heat of the sun. The ones wearing it when seen from a distance are collectively described as “nanbengebenget”.
Accordingly, when the Spanish expedition under the command of Guillermo de Galvey arrived in the area, one of his interpreters misunderstood the question of the Spaniards. The Spaniards pointing to the farming folks, asked, “como sellama este lugar? (What’s the name of this place?). The interpreter, who spoke in Ilocano then translated, “Anya cano ti impotpotipot ti ul-ulo ti tat-tao ditoy?” (What do you call the coverings around the people’s heads?”). Then, without hesitation, a native elder answered, “benget”. Without further probing, the cartographer wrote “benget” with the European sound “benguet” pronounced as “beng-get”.
In the early days, the Kankana-ey from the north traveled to the south to trade with the lowland brothers. Since this region before was thickly forested, the travelers follow one common trail, passing by a swampy area, now La Trinidad Valley. Since this swamp is muddy travelers have to follow the edge of the swamp to reach the other side. The word "edge" means "benget" in Kankana-ey. Since people traverse this place day in and day out passing by the edge, the swamp was popularized as "benget", and the people residing around the lake were called "Ibenget".
Early attempts of Spanish explorers to conquer Benguet were primarily drawn by the fabled rich gold mines of the Igorot. Hence, 1620, the first major Spanish incursion in La Trinidad Valley briefly took over a few of the gold mines; however, this was abandoned after six years, and the Benguet peoples were left largely unconquered during the Spanish period.
In the early 19th century, after Spanish explorer Colonel Guillermo Galvey’s report on his expedition, the Spanish Government organized the mountain region into six “commandancias politico militar” –Benguet in 1846, Lepanto in 1852, Bontoc in 1859, Amburayan in 1889, and Kayapa and Cabugaoan in 1891.
The commandancia of Benguet was divided into 41 rancherias, with La Trinidad as the capital. This was named in honor of Don Galvey's wife, Trinidad. The first "Kapitan" of Benguet was Pulito of Kafagway, now Baguio City, which was then a minor rancheria of about 20 houses.
In the same year 1846, Benguet became a district of the newly organized province of La Union. In 1854, the district became a separate commandancia politico military.
In 1899, the Katipunan came to Benguet and united the Igorots into establishing Benguet under the Government of the Republic of the Philippines. However, this was short lived since the American colonizers took over in the early 1900’s.
In November 22, 1900 during the American Period, the local civil government was established thru Act No. 48 in 19 townships of Benguet. Under the same act, the Provincial Government of Benguet was officially set. The next day November 23, 1900, by the authority of the US President at that time thru Act No. 49, the US Philippine Commission established a civil government for Benguet. All officers resided in the township of Baguio, making it the capital of Benguet. Mr. H.P. Whitmarsh, a Canadian journalist, was appointed as the Civil Governor of Benguet province; while Mr. Sioco Cariño was chosen as president for the township of Baguio.
In June 29, 1901, a proviso was inserted in Act No. 155 stating that a popular representative for Benguet be elected on July 4 of the same year.
In September 14, 1905, Act No. 49 was repealed thru Act No. 1396 or the “Special Government Act” that organized Benguet as a province.
In May 15, 1907, Act No. 1646 provided the election of delegates to the constitutional convention to be held on July 13, 1907.
In August 13, 1908, Act No. 1876 was passed and the next days after in August 18, 1908, Benguet became a sub-province of Mountain Province. In the long run, the 19 towns of Benguet were reduced to 13 municipalities thru Executive Orders issued by the Governor General of the Philippines. The township of Tuba was then created when the township of Baguio became a chartered city in 1909.
In February 4, 1920, Act No. 2877 amended the boundary of Benguet, resulting in the abolition of the sub-provinces of Amburayan. The Lepanto portion of Amburayan then became a part of La Union, while another part of Lepanto was placed under Ilocos Sur.
In the 1930’s, mining companies began their massive gold-mining operations in the province.
In World War II, Benguet was also a site of battles fought by Igorot guerillas and American soldiers that opened the western flank of Japanese forces in 1945.
In June 18, 1966, Benguet became one of four provinces in Mountain Province thru RA No. 4695. Under this Act, Dennis Molintas, Sr. of Bokod became the first appointed Governor on September 3, 1966. The secretary of finance then issued a directive that the four provinces enact their operational budgets effective April 1, 1967.
In March 22, 1967, Gov. Molintas, Sr. together with the other members of the first provincial board took their oath before then President Ferdinand E. Marcos in San Pascual, Tuba. In the next days on March 27, 1976, the first board meeting was held at La Trinidad, the former Sub-provincial Capitol of Benguet. In the next months, November 12, 1967, the members of the first elective provincial board were voted.
In July 22, 1968, Board Resolution No. 894 formally adopted a coat-of-arms for the province of Benguet. In the next year, January 7, 1969, Board Resolution No. 16 approved the “everlasting” as the official flower of Benguet. The following year again, in May 25, 1970, Resolution No. 394 implemented “Benguet Highlands”, “Province of Benguet (my own)”, and “All Hail, Benguet Beloved” as the official songs of the province.
At present, Benguet is still dubbed as the “Salad Bowl of the Philippines” due to its huge production of highland vegetables and vegetables that are practically ingredients of any vegetable salad. Recently, the name “Strawberry Country” was also added to its title.
In February 25 to March 6, 2005, the first Adivay Festival was organized to enhance Benguet as a viable tourism destination. The festival is now held in conjunction with the yearly celebration of the Benguet foundation day every November 23. “Adivay” is an Ibaloi term for coming together of people to celebrate.
Topography & Climate
Benguet lying on top of the Cordillera Mountains has an elevation of 5,000 meters above sea level. It has a rugged and sloping terrain dotted with hot springs and rivers that drain into the valleys of the province. Its capital La Trinidad is a plateau with an elevation of 1,500 meters above sea level. It has a land area of 276, 908 hectares, of which 1,776.4 square kilometers are forest reserves.
Benguet also has a prevalently cool climate with two seasons – dry from November to April and wet season from May to October.
Benguet has the highest population of the provinces of CAR. As of 2007, the population is 372,533 with a population density of 135 people per square meter and a growth rate of 1.3% since 2000.
People & Languages
Benguet is mainly inhabited by the Ibaloi and Kankana-ey people. The Ibalois mostly occupying the southeast part of Benguet speak the Nabaloy, which resembles the linguistic sound of the language of the Pangasinenses. This may be due to the interaction of the natives of Benguet with the natives of Pangasinan during the Pre-Spanish era. The Ibalaoi also has affinity with the Kalangoya of Tinek in Ifugao, the Mandek-ey (Kankana-ey) & the Manke’dey (Ibaloi) of Buguias, the Kalahan along the foot of Mt. Pulag to Imogen, and the I-owak of Kayapa in Nueva Vizcaya. Meanwhile, the Kankana-eys dominating the northeast portion of Benguet, speak the Kalkali, a language similar to the Mountain Province Kankana-ey and akin to Ilocano.
In Kapangan, the Katagwan people have emerged from their blending of Nabaloi and Kalkali. Accordingly, they communicate with each other in the modified Kalkali and religiously observe rituals & practices similar to the Ibaloi. Further, the Karao of Bokod occupying the eastern side of Benguet also exhibit a distinct language and a set of beliefs & practices different from the Ibaloi and Kankana-ey.
Another set of people, the Bago or Bag-bag-o people speaking a different language from the Ibalois & Kankana-eys, live in the peripheral areas west and south of Benguet from east of Ilocos Sur to north of Pangasinan.
Economy & Industries
Benguet is a second class province based on its income for the past five years. As of 2010, its income reached 367 million pesos.
Agriculture is the major industry in the province. At least 54% of the labor force is engaged in vegetable & cut-flower farming. Vegetable products from the province supplies 80% of vegetable needs in the metropolis. Vegetables grown are cabbage, Chinese cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, potatoes, carrots and other temperate veggies. Cut-flowers propagated are roses, mums, lilies, carnations, Shasta, and other flowers. The “Rose Garden of the Philippines” is also located in the province in Barangay Bahong, La Trinidad.
Mining, both small-scale and large-scale, is the second largest industry in Benguet. The mining industry also provides employment to 30% of the province’s residents and of people from other provinces.
Manufacturing is also a major enterprise in the province. Manufacturing activities include loom-weaving, knitting, vegetable & fruit processing, bamboo craft, woodcarving, and tiger grass craft. It also holds potential for ore processing, silk-fiber craft, and root crop, white potato, mushroom, and strawberry processing.
Tourism is also a growing industry, with emphasis on ecotourism. Benguet’s tourism focusing on nature and culture-based programs, aims at bringing economic growth and development to host communities in urban and largely rural settings.
Sites & Attractions
- Camp Utopia (Sagubo, Kapangan): the camp of the 66th Infantry Battalion during the World War II, and the site where the late Major Bado Dangwa and Major Dennis Molintas led the defense of the Igorot territories
- Kaliwaga Cave (Kaliwaga, Kapangan): burial place of the British soldiers of fortune who came to Benguet in the 15th century
- Guerilla Saddle (Km. 26, Atok): where the battle between the Japanese Imperial
Forces and the US Armed Forces (66th Infantry Battalion) was fought to the advantage of the guerilla resistance movement during WWII. Hence, Atok became known as the Vanguard of Freedom in Benguet.
- Darew Ancient Ruins of Civilization (Kapangan): provides a vantage view of the coastline to the west and the valley to the east; this is also the area where people from the highlands and from the lowlands intermarried, traded, and forged alliances in the past.
- Hill WWII (Mankayan): site where the 66th Infantry Battalion and the Filipino guerillas fought to make their way to Besang Pass. The capture of the area opened the right flank guard of the Japanese forces to bombing and to constant attack by the Igorot freedom fighters.
- Lamtang (Puguis, La Trinidad): the escape route of then Pres. Sergio Osmeña & his party, who were escorted by a detachment of the 66th Infantry Battalion to Camp Valhalla in Kapangan to San Gabriel, La Union during WWII
- Klondykes Stone Walls (Klondykes, Tuba): remnant of the first American building estimated to be constructed in 1902, which was used by the American Engineers who built the Kennon Road
- Cariño Cave (Eddet, Kabayan): the hiding place of Gov. Ora Cariño, and the place where he was captured by the Americans in 1900
- Manenchen (Manenchen, Kabayan): the site of the massacre of Eddet residents by the Japanese Imperial Army during WWII
- Kennon Road (Tuba): the first Benguet road to be constructed by the Americans in 1902. The completion of this road opened the entire Benguet Province to vehicular traffic and marked the entry of Americans, Europeans, Japanese, Chinese and lowlanders to the province. It was initially referred to as the Benguet Road until renamed to Kennon Road thru Executive Order No. 9 in 1922, in honor of Col. Lyman W. Kennon, the American engineer who supervised the construction of the road in 1905.
- Kabayan Pyramid (Poblacion, Kabayan): also called “Kinepol ni Nabaloi”, this is the burial tomb of Henry A. Kamora, the Grand Old Man of Kabayan
- Embosi (Gusaran, Kabayan): the first known Ibaloi settlement
Mountains, Hills, and other Peaks
- Duligen Rock – in a legend, this is believed to be Kabunyan’s phallus
- Mt. Osdong – the highest peak in Bakun
- Mt. Tenglawan – a rocky mountain said to be more imposing to hikers than Mt. Kabunyan
- Mt. Liblibo – known as home of the clouds; recommended for more experienced hikers as there are no foot trails available
- Mt. Tugawi (Kayapa)
- Mt. Gedgedayan – features its natural multi-faced structures and several sleeping beauty shapes; due to its undisturbed structure, this is also home to wild goats
- Mt. Kamaltakan - includes the communal forest of the community residents of Bobok-Bisal
- Mariano Mountain & Lake
- Mt. Pulag Jr.
- Mt. Nato-o
- Mt. Kaman-eleng – as the term “eleng” implies, it is a mountain shaped like a big nose; “eleng” in the local language means nose
- Mt. Kitongan
- Mt. Apanderang
- Biak-na-Bato (Bangao) – a huge rock broken into two; also called the "pipingew house", as it is the dwelling place of local birds called pipingew
- Bidawan (Ave Maria) Mountain
- Mt. Ugo - 2,150 meters above sea level; crash site of at least three aircrafts: a UC45 CAB in the early 1960s, a PAL plane in 1987 and one of the helicopters doing rescue operations to the crashed plane
- Mt. Marikit – includes the Adashu burial cave, Ambasa cave and Baloy hot springs
- Mt. Pulag – the 3rd highest mountain in the Philippines, locally referred to as “the playground of the Ibaloi gods”
- Dakiwagan Mountain (Balakbac)
- Amiyet Mountain Range (Baleng-belis)
- Bubongna Mountain (Central) – served as the campsite of the Japanese soldiers during World War II
- Mt. Pokgong (Gaswiling)
- Mt. Salucasog (Cuba)
- Madaymen, Batangan, Takadang, and Legleg Palina
- Mt. Kilkili – cone-shaped mountain with a plateau as a camping site; the mountain is believed to be a part of a dead volcano
- Mt. Amanayao (Badeo) – highest mountain in the barangay and the watershed of the area
- Mt. Puso & Mt. Tagpaya (Takadang)
- Mt. Oten (Takadang) – highest peak in Tacadang with an elevation of 1,980 meters above sea level
- Mt. Kalugong (Tawang)
- Mt. Tayawan (Tawang)
- Mt. Yangbaw (Tawang)
- Mt. Peripen Bato (Pico)
- Mt. Bayoyo (Tabio) – also called “the sleeping crocodile”
- Palidan Slides – also called the grand canyon of Palasaan
- Mt. Data Plateau (Balili)
- Lap-angan, Dayapan, Begang Picnic Grounds (Cabiten) – site has stone flooring, and is believed to be a former hub of Japanese Imperial Officers during the WWII.
- Mt. Dakes/ “Shekes” (Banangan)
- Mt. Esbo (Bagong)
- Mt. Pokgong (Balluay)
- Mt. Santo Tomas (Poblacion)
- Olineg Cave (Poblacion, Bakun) – an unexplored cave believed to be a subterranean river about 15 kilometers long
- Mongso Cave (Dalupirip, Itogon)
- Bolinsak Cave/ Bulalakao Cave (Taba-ao) – dwelling place of bulalakao, a bird that appears only during the night
- Bolingaongao Cave (Paykek) - evacuation sites during WW I and II
- Longog Cave (Balakbak)
- Balabag Mummy Cave (Beleng-belis)
- Tinedkaw Cave (Tawang)
- Kulong Cave (Wangal)
- Dinog Cave (Bahong) – an underground cave with water running through
- Perel Cave (Balluay)
- Sinimbaan Cave (Ansagan)
- Tukang/ Aran Cave (Camp 3)
- Ambongdolan Caves (Ambongdolan) – features three separate caves in the area namely, Bongis Cave, Bengaongao Cave, and Ketong (Paterno) Cave
- Mt. Kabunyan & Bakun Burial Cave
- Apo Anno Burial Cave (Natubleng) – part of the Natubleng Burial Caves
- Liyang Calatan (Baculungan Sur)
- Bacala Caves (Calamagan)
- Duguay Burial Cave (Amlimay)
- Tikin Agindang Cave (Baculungan Sur)
- Pegpeg Burial Caves (Lengaoan)
- Ganangan Burial Cave (Sebang)
- Talangan Burial Cave (Catlubong)
- Shogen Burial Cave (Natubleng) in Buguias
- Palina Burial Site
- Ganga-an Burial Cave (Madaymen) – contains around 30 ingeniously crafted coffins
- Deccan Burial Cave (Badeo)
- Lam-ma Burial Rock (Poblacion)
- Pedak Burial Cave (Alapang)
- Begbeg Burial Cave (Wangal)
- Cabuyao Burial Cave (Poblacion) – located near Mt. Sto. Tomas
- Adevonan Waterfalls (Poblacion)
- Mangta Falls (Sinacbat)
- Wanga-Barbarit Falls (Bagu)
- Picao & Sacop Falls (Sitio Sao and Sitio Dada)
- Tekip Falls (Poblacion)
- Pattan Falls
- Bolo-bolo Waterfalls (Nawal)
- Uwak-Karao Waterfalls (Karao)
- Ansudeng Waterfalls
- Sabeng Anito Falls (Lengaoan)
- Man-asok Falls & Bayongobongan Falls (Baculungan Sur)
- Suyoc Falls
- Tapaya, Pul-agan, Cotinge, Ginawang, and Dageyadey Falls – all found in Beleng-belis; Pul-agan is about 20 meters in height, Cotinge is about 30 meters in height, Ginawang is about 25 meters in height, and Dageyadey is about 15 meters in height
- Pey-og Falls (Boklaoan) – more or less 100 meters in height
- Colangi Waterfalls (Badeo) – has an approximate height of 500-600 meters
- Lengsed Waterfalls (Poblacion)
- Culiang Waterfalls
- Payogpog Waterfalls (Shilan)
- Inodey Falls (Balili)
- Mada-ew Falls (Bedbed)
- Deccan Waterfalls (Balili)
- Sabdang Waterfalls (Lower Poblacion)
- Towing Waterfalls (Poblacion) – features several layered waterfalls
- Asal Waterfalls (Sawili)
- Agsit River & Waterfalls (Kamog)
- Budahaw Waterfalls (Pappa)
- Tagiew Waterfalls (Banengbeng)
- Colorado Falls (Twin Peaks)
- Canyon Falls (Camp 3)
- Bridal Veil Falls (Camp 4)
- Hydro Falls (Camp 6)
- Amburayan River – the largest river system in Atok and in Kapangan; water source comes from Kibungan
- Ampusongan River – once recognized as the cleanest body of water in Benguet; the water source of the Luzon Hydro Plant in Poblacion, Bakun
- Labay River
- Banao River – one of the tributaries to Agno River
- Agno River – the river traverses barangay’s Dalupirip and Tinongddan of Itogon, where it winds up at the San Roque Dam and San Manuel, Pangasinan.
- Mayos River
- Sukok River
- Dinangking/ Binanga River (Shilan)
- Wangal River (Wangal)
- Aneng River (Kamog)
- Ambacwag River (Banangan)
- Canyon Falls (Camp 3)
- Hydro Falls (Camp 6)
- Binajayeng Lake (Daclan)
- Debeng Lake – site of the American Head Quarters and First Aid Station (Red Cross) during WW II
- Nato-o Lake (Sebang)
- Tabeyo Lake (Amlimay)
- Topinao Lake (Tabio)
- Poblacion Hot Spring (Buguias)
- Badekbek Sulfur Springs (Bokod) – a sulfuric bubbling muddy hot spring; also known as the Daclan Hot Springs
- Itogon Hot Springs (Dalupirip, Itogon)
- Nasngi, Beey Dodong, and Tubeng Hot Springs (Poblacion, Kibungan) – water source from Mt. Kil-kili in Palina
- Ampetang Hot Spring (Bahong,La Trinidad)
- Sacdol Hot Spring (Pappa, Sablan)
- Asin Hot Springs (Nangalisan, Tuba)
- Balding Hot Spring (Camp 3, Tuba)
- Tuel Hot Springs (Tuel, Tublay)
- Atok: Natumpukan Half Tunnel, Haights Place, Naguey Rice Terraces, and Spanish Trail
- Bakun: Sinacbat Rice Terraces and Vegetable Rice Terraces; and
- Ambuclao Dam – Built in 1955, it generates and supplies electric power to many parts of Luzon; however, it displaced families since it submerged rice fields and vegetable gardens then
- Bokod: Daclan Rice Terraces, Mango Grooves, Nayasna Mini Park; and
- Tael Cave (Ambuclao) – a man-made tunnel used as a military hospital by the Japanese soldiers during WW II
- Buguias: Sebang Spanish Trail, Veteran Memorial Marker (marks the liberation of Abatan and Buguias on July 27, 1945), and Ancestral Landmark (a clan marker where people from the province and other places can trace and locate their ancestors)
- Itogon: Philex-Daynet Adventure Trail, Mummies of Domolpos, San Roque Dam, Baskey Dam, Gumatdang Cut-flower Gardens, Labilab Rose Garden, Ampucao Rice Terraces, 1300 Level Fishponds, 1300 Level Hot Springs, Pocket Mines Site;
- Balatoc Mines Village – the oldest mine in the Philippines, first opened in 1903; includes the Crosby Park, Balatoc Lake and the Villaluna Center
- Binga Dam - constructed in 1958 along the Agno River, supplying electric power for major parts of Luzon, including Manila
- The Ibaloi Hut – pre-war hut built in 1938 in Lusod, Tinongdan Barangay
- Kabayan: Kabayan Museum, Tinongchol Burial Rock, Etapuan Manenchen Early Settlement Sites, Tawak Pokingan & Talukip Cave, Manhumang Talking Stone, Apesang Rock; and
- Besang Footprints - legend says that a giant named Besang left his footprint on the big rocks. Similar footprints are found in the other municipalities suggesting that Besang passed through the place.
- Kapangan: Anthurium Forest/ Plantation; Kapangan Museum; Balacbac Rice Terraces, and Amlangit, Peka, and Noso Rice Terraces (Beleng-belis); and Camp Utopia
- Kibungan: Kibungan Rice Terraces – Poblacion Rice Terraces, Palina Rice Terraces/ Dampeg & Tanap Rice and Les-eng, Batangan, Wallayan, Culiang, and Lanipew Rice Terraces; Madaymen Vegetable Terraces; and
- Tabbak Tunnel – abandoned mine exploration tunnels; stonewalls contain pyrites or “false gold”
- La Trinidad: Rose Garden & Cut Flowers, Strawberry Fields, BSU Campus, Bell Church, Tawang Stone Church, Camp Bado Dangwa, Wangal & Municipal Communal Forest, Benguet Province Museum, and Benguet State University (BSU)
- Mankayan: Lepanto Mines and 9-hole Golf Course & Mini Site, CPG Community Complex, Twin Decline Tunnel, APDAI Shooting Range; and
- Mong-o Burial Ground – believed to be the first Kankana-ey ancient graveyard
- Tuba: Kennon Road, Marcos (Palispis) Highway, Sta. Lucia Realty Corporation Clubhouse (Tuba), Sipitan & Yanged Tunnels (Tuba), and Wood Crafts & Souvenir Shops (Tuba)
- Philex Mining Corporation – the biggest mining producer in the country operating province; however, Benguet only gets a tiny portion of the income, as the large part of the income and 98% of taxes go to Makati City & the rest of the country.
- Tublay: Enca Eco-tourism & Organic Farm and Winaca Eco-cultural Village
- Province of Benguet. 2011. Accessed October 20, 2011.
- “Benguet Province”. National Statistical Coordination Board. August 25, 2005. Accessed October 21, 2011.
- Lito Dar (PIA)“Baguio Celebrates Adivay 2010 Festival”. Baguio News. November 12, 2010. Accessed October 21, 2011.
- Adivay history. 2009. Accessed October 21, 2011.
Bridge Cosme. Tukang Cave Photos. Camp 3, Kennon Road, Tuba, Benguet. April 26, 1998; May 16, 1998; and May 4, 1997. Permission obtained from photographer on October 14, 2011.
Bridge Cosme. Ambongdolan Caves, Lagoon, and Waterfalls Photos. Ambongdolan, Tublay, Benguet. December 27 & 29, 1999; and October 1, 1999. Permission obtained from photographer on October 14, 2011.
Bridge Cosme. Bridal Veil Falls, Canyon Falls, and Hydro Falls Photos. Kennon Road, Tuba, Benguet. May 1997; May 18, 1997; and November 13, 1999. Permission obtained from photographer on October 14, 2011.