Timeline of Philippine-American War
From Wikipilipinas: The Hip 'n Free Philippine Encyclopedia
- May 1 - First battle of the Spanish-American War: Admiral George Dewey destroys the Spanish fleet at Battle of Manila Bay.
- May 19 - Emilio Aguinaldo returns to the Philippines from exile in Hong Kong where he had been since the failure of the Katipunan revolt of 1892-1896
- June 12 - Having defeated most of the Spanish forces on land and having surrounded Manila, General Aguinaldo signs the Philippine Declaration of Independence and becomes first president of the Philippines.
- June 15 - Anti-imperialist league formed to fight U.S. annexation of the Philippines and other insular areas, citing a variety of legal, economic, moral and racist reasons.
- July 25 - August 13 - Last battle of Spanish-American War: U.S. and Philippine troops defeat Spanish troops in Battle of Manila
- August 14 - U.S. sends 10,000 troops to occupy the Philippines
- - Philippine assembly ratifies Malolos constitution, establishing Philippine Republic as an independent state
- October 1 - Paris Peace Conference begins - U.S. President William McKinley instructs William Day to not annex all the Philippines, only Luzon, Guam, Puerto Rico
- October 24 - McKinley comes to a decision during the night. He woke up and received an answer from God - there was "nothing left for us to do but to take them all, to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and Christianize them. And then I went to bed, and went to sleep, and slept soundly,"
- October 28 - McKinley cables new instructions to Paris delegation: "the cession must be of the whole archipelago or none"
- December 10 - Final Treaty of Paris signed by Spain and U.S; U.S. pays Spain US$20 million for possession of Guam, Puerto Rico and The Philippines.
- January 23- pinasinayaan ang Unang Republika ng Pilipinas
- February - Philippine-American War begins
- February 4-5 - First and largest battle of the Philippine-American War: Battle of Manila; Americans drive Filipino army out of Manila
- February 6 - U.S. Senate votes to ratify Treaty of Paris 57-27 (2/3 plus one) with only 2 Republicans opposed: George Hoar of Massachusetts and Eugene Hale of Maine
- March 31 - American forces captures Malolos, capital of the Philippine Republic on Luzon, driving out Aguinaldo and his government
- April 9-April 10 - Battle of Santa Cruz (1899) - U.S. General Henry W. Lawton captures Filipino stronghold of Santa Cruz and pushes into Laguna province on Luzon
- April 11, 1899 - Battle of Pagsanjan - American sharpshooters skirmish with Filipinos outside of Pagsanjan, succeeding in driving them out. General Lawton's troops take Pagsanjan in the second action of the Laguna Campaign.
- April 12, 1899 - Battle of Paete - General Lawton's forces disperse Filipinos blocking rout to Paete in stiff fight. Paete taken by the Americans. Last action of the Laguna Campaign.
- April 23 - Battle of Quingua - Philippine General Gregorio del Pilar stops American cavalry scouts on Luzon, but is then routed after an artillery bombardment and infantry ground assault.
- June 13 - Battle of Zapote Bridge - On Luzon, Lawton's American forces rout a larger Philippine force under General Maximo Hizon, and inflict heavy casualties on the enemy in 2nd largest battle of the Philippine-American War.
- - Boxer Rebellion in China begins
- November 11 - Battle of San Jacinto - U.S. General Loyd Wheaton drives Filipinos out of San Jacinto. Luzon.
- December 2 - Battle of Tirad Pass - On Luzon, 60 Filipino patriots under General del Pilar fight off an attack of 500 U.S. Infantry for 5 hours, before nearly all Filipinos are killed, including del Pilar.
- December 19 - Battle of Paye - On Luzon, Filipine General Licerio Geronimo routs an American brigade under General Lawton, in which Lawton is killed.
- April 15 - Siege of Catubig - Filipino guerrillas launch a surprise attack against a detachment of American soldiers, and, after a four-day siege, force them to evacuate the town of Catubig on Samar.
- - General Arthur MacArthur, Jr. replaces General Elwell Stephen Otis as military governor (until July 1901), and William Howard Taft arrived as civil governor of "our little brown brothers" (Governor-General of the Philippines) (until 1904)
- - General Arthur MacArthur, Jr. proclaims 90 day amnesty and offers 30 pesos per rifle. The amnesty pledges "complete immunity for the past and liberty for the future." The results of the amnesty were disappointing. It is suspected that many of the natives surrendering were opportunists collecting bounty for obsolete weapons.
- June 4 - Battle of Macahambus - On Macahambus Gorge in Cagayan de Misamis, Northern Mindanao (present day Cagayan de Oro), Filipinos rout an Americans regiment and inflict heavy casualties, but take less than 5 casualties of their own.
- September 13 - Battle of Pulang Lupa - On Makahambus, 40 Filipino resistance fighters under Colonel Maximo Abad ambush 100 Americans and kill, wound, or capture all of them.
- November 2 - William McKinley defeats Democrat William Jennings Bryan in the presidential election. Bryan was hurt by Aguinaldo's endorsement of the Democratic party. Albert Beveridge, the freshman senator from Indiana, emerged during the campaign as the "golden orator" of Republican imperialism, debating Senator George Frisbie Hoar, using his tour of the Philippines to claim direct knowledge of the war, holding out a golden nugget from the islands to prove its potential wealth: "I was there."
- March 23 - American General Fred Funston directs capture of Emilio Aguinaldo at his Palanan camp with the help of Macabebe scouts - Emilio Aguinaldo swears allegiance to the U.S. and asks his followers to surrender, but resistance remains strong.
- - Lonoy Massacre - In a reverse ambush, U.S. Infantryman launch a surprise attack on Bohol natives and kill over 400.
- May 27 - First Supreme Court rulings in the Insular Cases. The Supreme Court rules that colonies are constitutional and that U.S. constitutional rights need not apply to colonial peoples.
- September 28 - Balangiga Massacre - Over 50 Americans are killed in an ambush on Samar in the most infamous incident of the war. Gen. Jake "Howling Wilderness" Smith orders retaliation against the Samar civilian population
- December 7 - American General J. Franklin Bell begins concentration camp policy in Batangas on Luzon - everything outside the "dead lines" was systematically destroyed--humans, crops, domestic animals, houses, and boats. A similar policy had been initiated on the island of Marinduque some months before. The American Anti-imperialist press argues this policy is similar to the reconcentrado policy of Spanish General Valeriano Weyler in Cuba and British General Horatio Kitchener in the Second Boer War in South Africa.
- January 31 - Lodge Committee begins. Senator George Frisbie Hoar pushes Congressional investigation into the conduct of the war by the standing Committee on the Philippines headed by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. Testimony by American solders portrays routine brutality, torture.
- February 17 - Filipino General Vicente Lukban captured on Samar. Resistance continues in the Samar interior.
- March 2 - Court-martial of U.S. Marine Major Littleton Waller begins for the January execution of 11 mutinous porters on Samar. Court votes 11-2 for acquittal
- Philippine General Miguel Malvar surrenders in Luzon, followed by 3,000 of his men. Last Filipine general to surrender in the war.
- Court-martial of U.S. General Jacob H. Smith for ordering killing of all males over 10 years of age on Samar; convicted; verbally admonished; sent back to U.S; retired from service.
- guerrilla war continues
- December 23 - William Howard Taft, Governor-General of the Philippines negotiates with Pope Leo XIII. The United States buys Filipino Dominican friar lands for $7.2 million and resold to Filipinos, mostly to absentee landlords.
- guerrilla war continues
- - Massacre at Dolores - On Samar, 47 Philippine Constabulary Scouts ambushed by 1000 pulajans and nearly all killed.
- guerrilla war continues
- March 5-March 7 - Battle of Bud Dajo - One-thousand Moros fortify themselves in an extinct volcanic crater on Mindanao and battle a large number of American soldiers, before virtually all Moros Scouts killed.
- guerrilla war continues
- United States promises eventual Philippine independence.
- Moro rebellion phase of the war ends.
- Philippine-American War ends.
- ^ Miller, Stuart Creighton (1982). "Benevolent Assimilation" The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1903. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02697-8. p. 161
- ^ Miller, p. 207-211; See J. Franklin Bell, War crimes