Spanish-American War

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Spanish–American War
300px
Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill
by Frederic Remington
Date April 25–August 12, 1898
Location Caribbean and Pacific
Result Treaty of Paris: Cuba declared independent (1902), Spain cedes the Philippines, Guam, Anastasia Island and Puerto Rico to the United States for $20 million.
Start of the Philippine-American War.
Belligerents
US flag 45 stars.JPG United States
Flag of Cuba.JPG Republic of Cuba
Philippines flag original.png Philippine Republic
Spain1785.gif Spain
Commanders
US flag 45 stars.JPG Nelson A. Miles
US flag 45 stars.JPG William R. Shafter
US flag 45 stars.JPG George Dewey
Flag of Cuba.JPG Máximo Gómez
Philippines flag original.png Emilio Aguinaldo
Spain1785.gif Patricio Montojo
Spain1785.gif Pascual Cervera
Casualties and losses
3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties 40,000 dead. [1]

The Spanish–American War was a military conflict between the Kingdom of Spain and the United States of America that took place from April to August 1898. It was mainly caused by American demands that Spain peacefully resolve the insurrection in Cuba, which Spain was unable to do. Tension among the American people was raised because of the explosion of the American battleship USS Maine, and "yellow journalism" that accused Spain of extensive atrocities. The war ended after quick, decisive naval and military victories for the United States in the Philippines and Cuba. Only 113 days after the outbreak of war, the Treaty of Paris, which ended the conflict, gave the United States ownership of the former Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam. The U.S. took control of Cuba, ended the insurrection, expelled the Spanish and granted independence there in 1902.

Contents

Background

The mysterious sinking of the battleship USS Maine on February 15, 1898, at 9:30 p.m. in Havana Harbor was attributed, by Spanish scientists, to an internal and accidental explosion; but the American commission reported that it was caused by a submarine mine. The American public accepted the commission's report and rejected the Spanish report. (An investigation conducted in 1976 by scientists attributes the explosion to an internal combustion in a coal bunker that was situated next to a powder magazine.) When the Maine blew up, journalists like William R. Hearst leapt to the conclusion that Spanish officials in Cuba were to blame, and they widely publicized the conspiracy. Such publications practiced what was called "yellow journalism," which originated in New York. Yellow journalism fueled American anger by publishing astonishing "atrocities" committed by Spain in Cuba. Hearst, when informed that conditions in Cuba were not bad enough to warrant hostilities, allegedly replied, "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war." Lashed to fury by the yellow press, the American cry of the hour became,

Remember the Maine, To Hell with Spain!

The decisive event was probably the speech of Republican Senator Redfield Proctor in mid-March, thoroughly and calmly analyzing the situation and concluding war was the only answer. The business and religious communities, which had opposed war, switched sides, leaving President William McKinley and Speaker of the House Thomas Brackett Reed almost alone. [2] Thus, on April 11, McKinley asked Congress for authority to send American troops to Cuba for the purpose of ending the civil war there. On April 19, Congress passed joint resolutions proclaiming Cuba "free and independent" and disclaiming any intentions in Cuba, demanded Spanish withdrawal, and authorized the President to use as much military force as he thought necessary to help Cuban patriots gain freedom from Spain. (This was adopted by Congress from Senator Henry Teller of Colorado as the Teller Amendment, which passed unanimously.) In response, Spain broke off diplomatic relations with the United States and declared war on April 23. On April 25, Congress declared that a state of war between the United States and Spain had existed since April 20 (later changed to April 21).

Theaters of operation

Guam

Captain Henry Glass was on the cruiser USS Charleston when he opened sealed orders notifying him to proceed to Guam and capture it. Upon arrival on June 20, he fired his cannon at the island. The Spanish officer, not knowing that war had been declared, came out to the ship and asked to borrow some powder to return the American's salute. Glass responded by taking the officer prisoner and, after taking parole, ordered him to return to the island to discuss the terms of surrender. The following day, 54 Spanish infantry were captured, and the island became the possession of the United States.

Cuba

Staff of the 1st US Volunteer Regiment, the "Rough Riders" in Tampa - LtCol Roosevelt on right. Taylor MacDonald is on the far left.
File:Cristobal-colon h63229.jpg
Spanish steamer Cristóbal Colón. Destroyed during the Battle of Santiago on July 3rd of 1898.
Detail from Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, July 2, 1898 depicting the Battle of San Juan Hill.

Theodore Roosevelt actively encouraged intervention in Cuba and, while assistant secretary of the Navy, placed the Navy on a war-time footing. He ordered Commodore George Dewey and the Pacific fleet to the Philippines, and he worked with Leonard Wood in convincing the Army to raise an all-volunteer regiment, the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry. Wood was given command of the regiment that became quickly known as the "Rough Riders".

Naval operations

The first battle in Cuba was by a base at Guacamoli Bay on June 10 by U.S. Marines.

Spanish Admiral Cervera, who had arrived from Spain, held up his naval forces in Santiago harbor where they would be protected from sea attack. Assistant Naval Constructor Richmond Pearson Hobson was soon ordered by Admiral Sampson to sink the collier Merrimac in the harbor to bottle up the fleet. The mission was a failure, and Hobson and his crew were captured. They were exchanged on July 6, and Hobson became a national hero; he received the Medal of Honor in 1933 and became a Congressman.

Ground operations

The Americans planned to capture the city of Santiago in order to destroy Linares Army and Cervera's fleet, which they must to pass through concentrated Spanish defenses in San Juan Hills and a small town in El Caney. The American forces were aided in Cuba by the pro-independence rebels led by General Calixto García.

On June 22 and June 24, the U.S. V Corps under General William R. Shafter landed at Daiquiri and Siboney East of Santiago and established the American base of operations. An advance guard of U.S. forces under former Confederate General Joseph Wheeler ignored Cuban scouting parties and orders to proceed with caution. They caught up with and engaged the Spanish rear guard in the Battle of Las Guasimas. U.S. forces were checked momentarily although the Spanish continued their planned retreat. The battle of Las Guasimas showed the U.S. that the civil war tactics did not work effectively against Spain.

Battle of El Caney, Las Gúsimas, and San Juan Hill

On July 1, a combined force of about 15,000 American troops in regular infantry, cavalry and volunteer regiments, including Roosevelt and his "Rough Riders," and rebel Cuban forces attacked 1,270 entrenched Spaniards in dangerous frontal assaults at the Battle of El Caney and Battle of San Juan Hill outside of Santiago. [4] More than 200 U.S. soldiers were killed and close to 1,200 wounded. [5] in the fighting, The Spaniards suffered less than half the number of casualties. [6] Supporting fire by Gatling guns was critical to the success of the assault [7] [8]. Cervera decided to escape Santiago two days later.

The Spanish forces at Guantánamo were so isolated by Marines and Cuban forces that they did not know that Santiago was under siege, and their forces in the northern part of the province could not break through Cuban lines. This was not true of the Escario relief column from Manzanillo, [9] which fought its way past determined Cuban resistance but arrived too late to participate in the siege.

Aftermath

After the battles of San Juan Hill and El Caney, the American advance ground to a halt. Spanish troops successfully defended Fort Canosa, allowing them to stabilize their line and bar the entry to Santiago. The Americans and Cubans forcibly began a bloody, strangling siege of the city.<ref>Daley, 2000</ref> During the nights, Cuban troops dug successive series of "trenches," (actually raised parapets) toward the Spanish positions. Once completed, these parapets were occupied by U.S. soldiers and a new set of excavations went forward. American troops, while suffering daily losses from Spanish fire, suffered far more casualties from heat exhaustion and mosquito borne disease.<ref>McCook, 1899</ref> At the western approaches to the city Cuban General Calixto Garcia began to encroach on the city, causing much panic and fear of reprisals among the Spanish forces.

Puerto Rico

U.S. 1st Kentucky Volunteers in Puerto Rico, 1898

During May 1898, Lt. Henry H. Whitney of the United States Fourth Artillery was sent to Puerto Rico on a reconnaissance mission, sponsored by the Army's Bureau of Military Intelligence. He provided maps and information on the Spanish military forces to the U.S. government prior to the invasion. On May 10, U.S. Navy warships were sighted off the coast of Puerto Rico. On May 12, a squadron of 12 U.S. ships commanded by Rear Adm. William T. Sampson bombarded San Juan. During the bombardment, many buildings were shelled. On June 25, the Yosemite blocked San Juan harbor. On July 25, General Nelson A. Miles, with 3,300 soldiers, landed at Guánica and took over the island with little resistance. [10]

Peace treaty

With both of its fleets incapacitated, Spain sued for peace.

Hostilities were halted on August 12, 1898. The formal peace treaty was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898 and was ratified by the United States Senate on February 6, 1899. It came into force on April 11, 1899. Cubans participated only as observers.

The United States gained almost all of Spain's colonies, including the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Cuba was granted independence, but the United States imposed various restrictions on the new government, including prohibiting alliances with other countries.

On August 14, 1898, 11,000 ground troops were sent to occupy the Philippines. When U.S. troops began to take the place of the Spanish in control of the country, warfare broke out between U.S. forces and the Filipinos.

Aftermath

With the end of the war, Colonel Roosevelt musters out of the US Army at Montauk, Long Island, in 1898

The Spanish–American War was a “splendid little war” according to Theodore Roosevelt, who, according to his own account, 'shot Cubans like rabbits'. The press showed Northerners and Southerners, blacks and whites fighting against a common foe, helping to ease the scars left from the American Civil War.

The Spanish–American War is significant in American history, because it enabled the young nation to emerge as a power on the world stage, though with a colonial domain smaller than that of Britain or France. The war marked American entry into world affairs: over the course of the next century, the United States had a large hand in various conflicts around the world. The Panic of 1893 was over by this point, and the United States entered a lengthy and prosperous period of high economic growth, population growth, and technological innovation which lasted through the 1920s.

The war marked the effective end of the Spanish empire. Spain had been declining as a great power over most of the previous century, especially since the Napoleonic Wars. The defeat caused a national trauma because of the affinity of peninsular Spaniards with Cuba, which was seen as another province of Spain rather than as a colony. Culturally a new wave called the Generation of 1898 originated as a response to this trauma, marking a renaissance of the Spanish culture. Economically, the war actually benefited Spain, because following the end of the war, large sums of capitals held by Spaniards not only in Cuba but also all over America were brought back to the peninsula and invested in Spain. This massive flow of capital (equivalent to 25% of the GDP of one year) helped to develop the large modern firm in Spain in industrial sectors (steel, chemistry, mechanical, textiles and shipyards among others), in the electrical power industry and in the financial sector<ref>Albert Carreras & Xavier Tafunell: Historia Económica de la España contemporánea, p. 200-208, ISBN 84-8432-502-4</ref>. However, politically the consequences were serious. The defeat in the war generated a period of political instability which led to the coup d'état by Primo de Rivera in 1923.

1898 political cartoon: "Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip" meaning the extension of U.S. domination (symbolized by a bald eagle) from Puerto Rico to the Philippines. The cartoon contrasts this with a map of the smaller United States 100 years earlier in 1798.

Congress had passed the Teller Amendment prior to the war, promising Cuban independence. However, the Senate passed the Platt Amendment as a rider to an Army appropriations bill, forcing a peace treaty on Cuba which prohibited it from signing treaties with other nations or contracting a public debt. The Platt Amendment was pushed by imperialists that wanted to project U.S. power abroad (this was in contrast to the Teller Amendment which was pushed by anti-imperialists that called for a restraint on U.S. hegemony). The amendment granted the United States the right to stabilize Cuba militarily as needed. The Platt Amendment also provided for the establishment of a permanent American naval base in Cuba; it is still in use today at Guantánamo Bay. The Cuban peace treaty of 1903 governed Cuban-American relations until 1934.

The United States annexed the former Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam. The notion of the United States as an imperial power, with foreign colonies, was hotly debated domestically with President McKinley and the Pro-Imperialists winning their way over vocal opposition led by Democrat William Jennings Bryan, who had supported the war. The American public largely supported the possession of colonies, but there were many outspoken critics such as Mark Twain, who wrote The War Prayer in protest.

Roosevelt returned to the United States a war hero, and he was soon elected governor and then Vice President.
1900 Campaign poster

The war served to further cement relations between the American North and South. The war provided both sides a common enemy for the first time since the end of the Civil War in 1865, and many friendships were formed between soldiers of both northern and southern states during their tours of duty. This was an important development since many soldiers in this war were the children of Civil War veterans on both sides.

Segregation in the US Military, 1898

The black American community strongly supported the rebels in Cuba, supported entry into the war, and gained prestige from their wartime performance in the Army. Spokesmen noted that 33 black American seamen had died in the Maine explosion. The most influential black leader, Booker T. Washington argued that his race was ready to fight. War offered them a chance "to render service to our country that no other race can," because, unlike whites, they were "accustomed" to the "peculiar and dangerous climate" of Cuba. In March 1898, Washington promised the Secretary of the Navy that war would be answered by "at least ten thousand loyal, brave, strong black men in the south who crave an opportunity to show their loyalty to our land and would gladly take this method of showing their gratitude for the lives laid down and the sacrifices made that the Negro might have his freedom and rights." [3]

In 1904, the United Spanish War Veterans was created from smaller groups of the veterans of the Spanish American War. Today, that organization is defunct, but it left an heir in the form of the Sons of Spanish American War Veterans, created in 1937 at the 39th National Encampment of the United Spanish War Veterans. According to data from the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, the last surviving U.S. veteran of the conflict, Nathan E. Cook, died on September 10, 1992, at age 106. (If the data is to be believed, Cook, born October 10, 1885, would have been only 12 years old when he served in the war.)

Propaganda in the war

General Jacob H. Smith's infamous order "KILL EVERY ONE OVER TEN" was the caption in the New York Journal cartoon on May 5, 1902. The Old Glory draped an American shield on which a vulture replaced the bald eagle. The bottom caption exclaimed, "Criminals Because They Were Born Ten Years Before We Took the Philippines".

In the 1890s, while competing over readership of their newspapers in New York City, William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer’s yellow journalism are said to have swayed public opinion in New York City. The influence of the New York newspapers upon the nation at large was very great. The World, Journal, Sun, and Herald, all with special correspondents in Cuba, sold their news service to papers outside the city. The Chicago Tribune used the World service and also the Journal syndicate service; the Boston Herald and Chicago Times-Herald secured the New York Herald service; the San Fransisco Chronicle took both the New York Herald and the Sun services; and the San Francisco Examiner, a Hearst paper, was furnished the same service as the Journal. Furthermore, since all the leading New York newspapers except the Sun were members of the Associated Press, their news was available for transmission to other member papers. A study of Public Opinion for the period from February 1895 to April 1898 shows that of 181 excerpts quoted from the nation's newspapers concerning Cuban affairs, the New York press furnished 56.<ref> Joseph E. Wisan.; The Cuban Crisis As Reflected In the New York Press. (1934), p. 21-26; </ref> By appealing to the territoriality and ethnocentrism of readers, Hearst and Pulitzer had some influence over American opinion of the Spanish. The Spanish soldiers, portrayed as cruel and bloodthirsty, were accused of countless illegal and immoral acts. Allegations were made that innocent women were strip searched by callous troops, or taken prisoner and thrown into Cuban jails full of violent criminals. These images and stories invoked the public outcry that led to war.

One of the most effective ways to rouse emotion was to portray the victimization of women, the most prominent being Evangelina Betancourt Cisneros. The articles describe her as an affluent, innocent young woman. The response the authors wanted was support for the Cubans. Evangelina Cisneros was actually the daughter of a rebel leader who had been imprisoned. In order to get her father moved to a better prison, Evangelina offered to stay in prison with him. After an incident with a Spanish colonel, the nature of which is unclear, Evangelina was moved to a much harsher prison.

Film was used a propaganda for the first time in the Spanish–American War. A short ninety second film, called Tearing Down the Spanish Flag, produced in 1898, was a simple moving image designed to inspire patriotism and hatred for the Spanish in America. This film, as the title suggests, depicts the removal of the Spanish national flag and its replacement by the Stars and Stripes of America.

Military decorations

The conflict produced the first major recognition of individual acts of bravery by soldiers, Marines, and sailors alike. The United States awards and decorations of the Spanish–American War were as follows:

  • Medal of Honor (Extreme Acts of Heroism or Bravery)
  • Specially Meritorious Service Medal (Navy and Marine Corps Meritorious Actions)
  • Spanish Campaign Medal (General Service)
  • West Indies Campaign Medal (West Indies Naval Service)
  • Sampson Medal (West Indies service under Admiral Sampson)
  • Dewey Medal (Battle of Manila Bay Service)
  • Spanish War Service Medal (U.S. Army Homeland Service)
  • Army of Puerto Rican Occupation Medal (Post-War Occupation Duty)
  • Army of Cuban Occupation Medal (Post-War Occupation Duty)


The Spanish Campaign Medal was upgradeable to include the Silver Citation Star to recognize those U.S. Army members who had performed individual acts of heroism. The governments of Spain and Cuba also issued a wide variety of military awards to honor Spanish, Cuban, and Philippine soldiers who had served in the conflict.

U.S. Army War with Spain campaign streamer.

See also

Notes

  • ^ 1 McCook (1899 pp. 417-442) who examined each known grave lists each of about 938 dead in his “Index of the Fallen” and mentions 1,415 treated at Siboney Hospital after the battle of San Juan Hill, which would include the numbers killed in the action around fort Canosa (Daley 2000). McCook mentions that very few died of wounds (these are included in the Index) once they reached this hospital. This differs from more official US figures: 385 killed in action 1,662 wounded and 2,061 dead from other causes [1]. Patrick McSherry lists for all theaters 332 combat deaths, 1,641 wounded, other causes of death 2,957, for a total of 3,549 US deaths [2]. Although these figures differ in proportions, the sum of US battle casualties in Cuba are congruent at about 2,200. McSherry lists 21 US Military killed in Philippines and Puerto Rico is about the same approximately 2,000 plus 260 sailors dead in the Maine explosion. The number of Spanish dead in and around Cuba including sailors is hard to estimate: “One century after the war experts still do not a clear idea about the Spanish casualties in the Spanish American War.” McSherry estimates 5,000–6,000 battle losses between 1895 and 1898 in campaigns against Cuban insurgents. Cuban forces, especially Supreme Cuban commander Máximo Gómez deliberately lured the Spanish into known fever areas. In addition it is widely reported that it was financially advantageous for the Spanish military field leadership to under report casualties. Estimates of Spanish losses to the insurgents in the Philippines were not found; however the war is described as bloody [3], such as in "The Siege of Baler"[4]. See individual battle articles for precise losses for each engagement.
  • ^ 2 Offner 1992 pp 131-35; Michelle Bray Davis, and Rollin W. Quimby, "Senator Proctor's Cuban Speech: Speculations on a Cause of the Spanish–American War," Quarterly Journal of Speech 1969 55(2): 131-141. ISSN 0033-5630
  • ^ 3 Willard B. Gatewood Jr.; Black Americans and the White Man's Burden, 1898-1903. (1975), p. 23-29; there were some opponents, ibid. p 30-32.
  • ^ 4 The Battles at El Caney and San Juan Hills at HomeOfHeroes.com.
  • ^ 5 The Crowded Hour: The Charge at El Caney & San Juan Hills at HomeOfHeroes.com.
  • ^ 6 Victory in the Spanish American War made the U.S. a nation with global interests.
  • ^ 7 The Gatlings at Santiago By John H. Parker
  • ^ 8 History of the Gatling Gun Detachment by John Henry Parker
  • ^ 9 Escario's Column. Contributed by Francisco Jose Diaz Diaz
  • ^ 10 The Puerto Rican Campaign refers to American operations on the island of Puerto Rico in the final stages of the Spanish-American War. Left unfinished by the announcement of the armistice on August 13, the conquest of Puerto Rico was generally regarded as an easy American victory by the press and neutral observers, although Spanish opposition along the island's fortified northwest had stiffened considerably and may indeed have proven fierce would the campaign have gone on.

References

  • Benjamin R. Beede, ed. The War of 1898 and U.S. Interventions, 1898-1934 (1994). an encyclopedia
  • Donald H. Dyal, Brian B. Carpenter, Mark A. Thomas; Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War Greenwood Press, 1996
  • Hendrickson, Kenneth E., Jr. The Spanish–American War Greenwood, 2003. short summary

Further reading

Diplomacy and causes of the war

  • James C. Bradford, ed., Crucible of Empire: The Spanish–American War and Its Aftermath (1993), essays on diplomacy, naval and military operations, and historiography.
  • Lewis L. Gould, The Spanish–American War and President McKinley (1982)
  • Ernest R. May, Imperial Democracy: The Emergence of America as a Great Power (1961)
  • Walter Millis, The Martial Spirit: A Study of Our War with Spain (1931)
  • H. Wayne Morgan, America's Road to Empire: The War with Spain and Overseas Expansion (1965)
  • John L. Offner, An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain over Cuba, 1895-1898 (1992).
  • Offner, John L. "McKinley and the Spanish–American War" Presidential Studies Quarterly 2004 34(1): 50-61. ISSN 0360-4918
  • Pratt, Julius W. The Expansionists of 1898 (1936)
  • Schoonover, Thomas. Uncle Sam's War of 1898 and the Origins of Globalization. 2003
  • Tone, John Lawrence. War and Genocide in Cuba, 1895-1898 (2006)

War

  • Donald Barr Chidsey, The Spanish American War ( New York, 1971)
  • Cirillo, Vincent J. Bullets and Bacilli: The Spanish–American War and Military Medicine 2004.
  • Graham A. Cosmas, An Army for Empire: The United States Army and the Spanish–American War (1971)
  • Frank Freidel, The Splendid Little War (1958), well illustrated narrative by scholar
  • Allan Keller, The Spanish–American War: A Compact History 1969
  • Gerald F. Linderman, The Mirror of War: American Society and the Spanish–American War (1974), domestic aspects
  • G. J. A. O'Toole, The Spanish War: An American Epic--1898 (1984).
  • John Tebbel, America's Great Patriotic War with Spain (1996)
  • David F. Trask, The War with Spain in 1898 (1981)

Historiography

  • Duvon C. Corbitt, "Cuban Revisionist Interpretations of Cuba's Struggle for Independence," Hispanic American Historical Review 32 (August 1963): 395-404.
  • Edward P. Crapol, "Coming to Terms with Empire: The Historiography of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Diplomatic History 16 (Fall 1992): 573-97;
  • Hugh DeSantis, "The Imperialist Impulse and American Innocence, 1865-1900," in Gerald K. Haines and J. Samuel Walker, eds., American Foreign Relations: A Historiographical Review (1981), pp. 65-90
  • James A. Field Jr., "American Imperialism: The Worst Chapter' in Almost Any Book," American Historical Review 83 (June 1978): 644-68, past of the "AHR Forum," with responses
  • Joseph A. Fry, "William McKinley and the Coming of the Spanish American War: A Study of the Besmirching and Redemption of an Historical Image," Diplomatic History 3 (Winter 1979): 77-97
  • Joseph A. Fry, "From Open Door to World Systems: Economic Interpretations of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Pacific Historical Review 65 (May 1996): 277-303
  • Thomas G. Paterson, "United States Intervention in Cuba, 1898: Interpretations of the Spanish–American-Cuban-Filipino War," History Teacher 29 (May 1996): 341-61;
  • Louis A. Pérez Jr.; The War of 1898: The United States and Cuba in History and Historiography University of North Carolina Press, 1998
  • Ephraim K. Smith, "William McKinley's Enduring Legacy: The Historiographical Debate on the Taking of the Philippine Islands," in James C. Bradford, ed., Crucible of Empire: The Spanish–American War and Its Aftermath (1993), pp. 205-49

Memoirs

  • Funston, Frederick. Memoirs of Two Wars, Cuba and Philippine Experiences. New York: Charles Schribner's Sons, 1911
  • U.S. War Dept. Military Notes on Cuba. 2 vols. Washington, DC: GPO, 1898.
  • Wheeler, Joseph. The Santiago Campaign, 1898. Lamson, Wolffe, Boston 1898.

Media

  • Cross, W. American Heritage Magazine. The perils of Evangelina. Feb. 1968.
  • Cull, N. J., Culbert, D., Welch, D. Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. Spanish–American War. Denver: ABC-CLIO. 2003. 378-379.
  • Daley, L. El Fortin Canosa en la Cuba del 1898. in Los Ultimos Dias del Comienzo. Ensayos sobre la Guerra Hispano-Cubana-Estadounidense. B. E.Aguirre and E. Espina eds. RiL Editores, Santiago de Chile 2000. pp. 161-171.
  • Davis, R. H. New York Journal. Does our flag shield women? 13 February 1897.
  • Duval, C. New York Journal. Evengelina Cisneros rescued by The Journal. 10 October 1897.
  • Kendrick M. New York Journal. Better she died then reach Ceuta. 18 August 1897.
  • Kendrick, M. New York Journal. The Cuban girl martyr. 17 February 1897.
  • Kendrick, M. New York Journal. Spanish auction off Cuban girls. 12 February 1897.
  • McCook, Henry C. The Martial Graves of Our Fallen Heroes in Santiago de Cuba. Philadelphia: Jacobs, 1899.
  • Muller y Tejeiro, Jose. Combates y Capitulacion de Santiago de Cuba. Marques, Madrid:1898. 208 p. English translation by US Navy Dept.
  • Dirks, Tim. War and Anti-War Films. The Greatest Films. Retrieved on November 9, 2005.
  • Adjutant General's Office Statistical Exhibit of Strength of Volunteer Forces Called Into Service During the War With Spain; with Losses From All Causes)Washington: Government Printing Office, 1899

External links


Original Source

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