Sambal language

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Sambal
Spoken in: Philippines 
Region: Zambales, Metro Manila, Olongapo, Palawan
Total speakers: 102,867<ref>http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=92420</ref>
Language family:
 Malayo-Polynesian
  Northern Philippine
   Central Luzon
    Sambalic
     Sambal
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: phi
ISO 639-3: either:

Sambal (Spanish: zambal) is a Sambalic language spoken primarily in the province of Zambales in the Philippines.

Contents

Varieties

Sambal has two varieties, Sambal and Botolan Sambal, spoken by approximately 70,000 (SIL 2000) and 32,867 (ibid. 2000) people, respectively. Sambal is spoken primarily in the Zambaleño municipalities of Santa Cruz, Candelaria, Masinloc, and Iba; speakers can also be found in Panitian, Quezon, Palawan. Botolan, on the other hand, is spoken primarily in the Zambaleño municipalities of Botolan and Cabangan. The first variety is also called Tina language, a term considered by the Sambal-speaking Zambalenos as inappropriate when referring to their Sambal or Sambali language.

Phonology

Sambal has 20 phonemes: 16 consonants and four vowels. Syllable structure is relatively simple. Each syllable contains at least a consonant and a vowel.

Vowels

Sambal has four vowels. They are:

There are five main diphthongs: /aɪ/, /uɪ/, /aʊ/, /ij/, and /iʊ/.

Consonants

Below is a chart of Sambal consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word.

Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Stops Voiceless p t k - [ʔ]
Voiced b d g
Affricates Voiceless (ts, ty) [tʃ]
Voiced (dy) [dʒ]
Fricatives s (sy) [ʃ] h
Nasals m n (ny) [ɲ] ng [ŋ]
Laterals l (ly) [lj]
Flaps r
Semivowels w j













Note: Consonants [d] and [ɾ] can sometimes interchange as they were once allophones.

Stress

Stress is phonemic in Sambal. Stress on words is very important, they differentiate words with the same spellings, but with different meanings, e.g. hikó (I) and híko (elbow).

Historical sound changes

Many words pronounced as /s/ and /g/ in Tagalog are pronounced as /h/ and /j/, respectively, in their cognates in Sambal. Compare hiko and bayo with the Tagalog siko and bago.

Sample texts

The Lord’s Prayer

Tina

Version from Matthew

Ama mi a ison ha langit,
sambawon a ngalan mo.
Ma-kit mi na komon a pa-mag-ari mo.
Ma-honol komon a kalabayan mo iti ha lota
a bilang anamaot ison ha langit.
Biyan mo kami komon nin
pa-mangan mi para konan yadtin awlo;
tan patawaron mo kami komon ha kawkasalanan mi
a bilang anamaot ha pa-matawad mi
konlan ampagkasalanan komi.
Tan komon ando mo aboloyan a matokso kami,
nokay masbali ipa-lilih mo kamin kay makagawa doka,
ta ikon moy kaarian, kapangyarian tan karangalan a homin
panganggawan. Amen.[2]

Version from Luke

Ama mi, maipatnag komon a banal mon kapangyarian.
Lomato ana komon a awlon sikay mag-ari.
Biyan mo kamin pa-mangan mi sa inawlo-awlo.
Inga-rowan mo kami sa kawkasalanan mi bilang
pa-nginganga-ro mi konlan nagkasalanan komi
tan ando mo kami aboloyan manabo sa tokso.
Wamoyo.[2]

Botolan (version from Matthew)

Tatay nawen ya anti ha katatag-ayan,
Hay ngalan mo ay igalang dayi nin kaganawan.
Andawaten nawen ya tampol kayna dayin mag-arí.
Mangyari dayi ya kalabayan mo bayri ha babon lotá
Bilang ombayro ha katatag-ayan.
Hapa-eg ay biyan mo kayin pamamangan ya
angka-ilanganen nawen.
Patawaren mo kayi ha kawkasalanan
nawen bilang pamatawad nawen ha
nakapagkasalanan konnawen.
Agmo kayi biyan ma-irap ya pagsobok boy
ipakarayó mo kayi koni Satanas.[3]

Philippine national proverb

Below are translations in Sambal of the Philippine national proverb[4] “He who does not acknowledge his beginnings will not reach his destination,” followed by the original in Tagalog.

  • Sambal (Tina): “Yay kay tanda mamanomtom ha pinag-ibatan, kay maka-lato ha ampa-pako-tawan.”
  • Sambal (Botolan): “Hay ahe nin nanlek ha pinag-ibatan, ay ahe makarateng ha lalakwen.”
  • Tagalog: “Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paroroonan.”

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=92420
  2. ^ a b /http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/JPN-sambal-tina.html
  3. ^ http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/JPN-sambal-botolan.html
  4. ^ http://iloko.tripod.com/philproverb.html

External links

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Original Source

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