Political Dynasties

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The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: Article 2 - Declaration of Principles and State Policies, Section 26 states that:

This provision clearly prohibits the existence of political dynasties in the country to preclude equal access to public service and the right for people to choose in the local election. However, it is not self-executory, meaning the provision needs an implementing law before it can be applied. Unfortunately, no such law has been approved in twenty years, mainly because of disagreements on the definition of a political dynasty, thus it continues to exert a pervasive influence on Philippine politics. Furthermore, the democratic character of the government, allows such groups to justify their existence and thrive under the mantle of legitimacy. It is true that no political family should exercise monopoly of leadership but they have all the economic resources and political clout to do so.

In section 115 of the Election Code of the Constitution, there is a proposed definition of political dynasty that was included but was not approved. The proposal prohibits persons having the same civil degree of relationship to run in any elective position in the same political unit in the same election. It also does not allow any persons with the same civil relationship, including legal or common-law partners, to succee an incumbent position of the latter.

Former Sen. Juan M. Flavier has authored SB 12 that defines and prohibits political dynasties. It refers political dynasty as “the concentration, consolidation, or perpetuation, of public office and political powers by persons related to one another.” Persons holding office and related within the third civil degree of consanguinity or affinity – including their spouses and the spouses of their brother-in-law and sister-in-law – will already be deemed to be in a political dynasty relationship.

There is a related piece of legislation that was filed in the House of Representatives, authored by Rep.Emilio C. Macias II – HB 44, that seeks to ban local officials from occupying the next higher position which they had previously occupied and for which they had served for three consecutive terms. The bill is currently pending in the House Committee on Local Government. If enacted into law, the bill will effectively prohibit an elected local official from filling a permanent vacancy by way of succession in the offices of the governor, vice governor, mayor or vice mayor during the prohibitive term or the term of office immediately after the third consecutive term.

While there is still no enacted law for these provisions, the Constitution has provided that all elective officials, from congressmen to municipal councilors, be limited to three consecutive terms. The idea was to limit the power of political clans. Unwittingly, the opposite has happened as the three-term limit gave the opportunity for political dynasties to perpetuate themselves in power. After their three-term is over they would either put thier spouses or their children or any relative to replace them for the post that they would leave and they would run for another post as there is no law saying that they cannot do so.

Now, the Constitution passed the enactment of these provisions to the Congress but the reality is that the dominant members of the House belong to political dynasties, which cannot be expected to legislate their own demise as a political entity. However, the politicians think that if people do not like you, they would not vote for you.


14th Congress of the Philippines

In the 14th Congress, there is a decrease in the number of legislators coming from political families but this does not mean, however, that they don't rule because they still do. According to GMA news research, there is at least 76 percent of the legislative representatives which belongs to political families compared to the 83% of the last Congress, still, 76% of the elected House Representatives comes from political families which is still a large margin to the 24 percent of the non-political family members.

The decrease in number of clans among the district representatives maybe due to the retirement of some political families, lost of the old-timers to the new-timers, some are in their end-term (has completed their three-term in the office), and some has sought new posts. These mean that it is not yet definite that political clans have lost their touch in their districts. These may also mean that there are new generation of political families surfacing the government.

Here is a list of the candidates from political families who ran in the May 2007 Election but lost:

Legislative District 13th Congress Representative/ Term Relative (Candidate) Relation
Bukidnon, 1st District J.R. Nereus O. Acosta/ 3rd Ma. Lourdes Acosta Sister
Cebu, 2nd District Simeon L. Kintanar/ 3rd Carmiano Kintanar Cousin
Cebu, 3rd District Antonio P. Yapha, Jr./ 3rd Estrella Yapha Wife
Davao City, 3rd District Ruy Elias C. Lopez/ 3rd Rene Elias C. Lopez Sibling
Eastern Samar, Lone District Marcelino C. Libanan/ 3rd Elda Ellado Libanan Wife
Ilocos Sur, 1st District Salacnib F. Baterina/ 3rd Bertrand A. Baterina Nephew
Leyte, 3rd District Eduardo K. Veloso/ 3rd Marie Therese U. Veloso Wife
Manila, 4th District Rodolfo C. Bacani/ 3rd Maria Aurora C. Bacani Wife
Manila, 5th District| Joey D. Hizon/ 3rd Estrelita S. Hizon Wife
Masbate, 2nd District Emilio R. Espinosa, Jr./ 3rd Ma. Lourdes Lilia K. Espinosa Niece
Misamis Oriental, 2nd District Augusto H. Baculio/ 3rd Augustus Rex Reyes Baculio Son
Negros Oriental, 1st District Jacinto V. Paras/ 3rd Olivia P. Paras Wife
Northern Samar, 2nd District Romualdo T. Vicencio*deceased/ 3rd Caesar Opiña Vicencio Son
Pampanga, 1st District Francis L. Nepomuceno/ 3rd Gerard De Leon Nepomuceno Son
Pangasinan, 3rd District Generoso D. Tulagan/ 3rd Generoso Domingo Tulagan, Jr. Son
Biliran, Lone District Gerardo J. Espina, Jr./ 1st Gerardo S. Espina, Sr. Father
Surigao del Sur, 2nd District Peter Paul Jed Falcon/ 1st Jesnar Falcon Father
Caloocan, 2nd District Luis Asistio/ 1st Albert Muñoz Nephew

List of Political Clans

At present, it is estimated that there are over 150 Political Dynasties in the Philippines today. Find out who they are:

Political Clans Province
Abad Clan Batanes
Abalos Clan Mandaluyong City
Abaya Clan Cavite
Abduraham Clan Tawi-Tawi
Acosta Clan Bukidnon
Adaza Clan Misamis Oriental
Adiong Clan Maguindanao
Aganon Clan Nueva Ecija
Agbayani Clan Pangasinan
Akbar Clan Basilan
Albani Clan Tawi-Tawi
Albano Clan Isabela
Alberto Clan Catanduanes
Alfelor Clan Camarines Sur
Almario Clan Davao Oriental
Amante Clan Agusan del Norte
Amatong Clan Compostela Valley
Ampao Clan Basilan
Ampatuan Clan Maguindanao
Andaya Clan Oriental Mindoro
Angara Clan Aurora
Angkanan Clan Sultan Kudarat
Anni Clan Sulu
Antonino Clan General Santos
Apostol Clan Leyte
Aquino Clan Tarlac
Armada Clan Iloilo
Arnaiz Clan Negros Oriental
Arroyo Clan Camarines Sur, Pampanga, Negros Occidental
Asistio Clan Caloocan
Astorga Clan Leyte
Atienza Clan Manila
Aumentado Clan Bohol
Bacani Clan Manila
Bacani Clan Quirino
Bagatsing Clan Manila
Balanquit Clan Northern Samar
Barbers Clan Surigao del Norte, Surigao City
Barroso Clan South Cotabato
Baterina Clan Ilocos Sur
Belmonte Clan Quezon City
Belo Clan Capiz
Biazon Clan Muntinlupa City
Bichara Clan Albay
Binay Clan Makati City
Bondoc Clan Pampanga
Brawner Clan Ifugao
Bulut Clan Apayao
Cabacang Clan Northern Samar
Caballero Clan Compostela Valley
Cainglet Clan Zamboanga City
Calingin Clan Misamis Oriental
Calizo Clan Aklan
Calo Clan Butuan City
Calumpang Clan Negros Oriental
Candao Clan Shariff Kabunsuan
Cappleman Clan Ifugao
Carag Clan Cagayan
Cari Clan Leyte
Carloto Clan Zamboanga del Norte
Catane Clan Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga del Norte
Cayetano Clan Taguig
Celera Clan Masbate

(Cerilles Clan) [Zamboanga del Sur]

Chiongbian Clan Sarangani, Cebu, Misamis Occidental
Clarete Clan Misamis Occidental
Claver Clan Mountain Province
Climaco Clan Zamboanga City
Crisologo Clan Ilocos Sur, Quezon City
Cojuangco Clan Tarlac
Corvera Clan Agusan del Norte Codilla Clan
Cosalan Clan Benguet
Cua Clan Quirino
Cuenco Clan Cebu
Cuneta Clan Pasay City
Cupin Clan Agusan del Norte
Dalog Clan Mountain Province
Dalwasen Clan Apayao
Dangwa Clan Benguet
David Clan
Daza Clan Northern Samar
Defensor Clan Iloilo
Delfin Clan Antique
De La Cruz Clan Bulacan
De Leon Clan Misamis Oriental
De Venecia Clan Pangasinan
Del Rosario Clan Davao del Norte
Diaz Clan Nueva Ecija
Dilangalen Clan Shariff Kabunsuan
Dimaporo Clan Lanao del Norte
Dominguez Clan Mountain Province
Duavit Clan Rizal
Dumpit Clan La Union
Dupaya Clan Cagayan
Durano Clan Cebu
Duterte Clan Davao City
Dy Clan Isabela
Ecleo Clan Dinagat Islands
Emano Clan Misamis Oriental
Enrile Clan Cagayan
Enverga Clan Quezon
Ermita Clan Batangas
Escudero Clan Sorsogon
Espina Clan Biliran
Espino Clan Pangasinan
Espinosa Clan Masbate
Estrella Clan Pangasinan
Estrada Clan San Juan City
Eusebio Clan Pasig City
Famor Clan Zamboanga Sibugay
Fernandez Clan Pangasinan
Fernando Clan
Figueroa Clan Samar
Floriendo Clan Davao
Fresnedi Clan Muntinlupa City
Frivaldo Clan Sorsogon
Fuentebella Clan Camarines Sur
Garcia Clan Cebu
Garcia Clan Palawan
Garin Clan Iloilo
Gentuyaga Clan Compostela Valley
Gordon Clan Olongapo City
Guiao Clan Pampanga
Guingona Clan Bukidnon
Herrera Clan Bohol
Henson Clan
Hofer Clan Zamboanga Sibugay
Imperial Clan Albay
Jalosjos Clan Zamboanga del Norte
Javier Clan Antique
Joaquin Clan
Joson Clan Nueva Ecija
Kintanar Clan Cebu
Lacbain Clan Zambales
Lacson Clan Negros Occidental
Lacuna Clan Manila
Lagman Clan Albay
Lapid Clan Pampanga
Larrazabal Clan Leyte
Political Clans Province
Laurel Clan Batangas
Lavin Clan Northern Samar
Lazaro Clan Laguna
Lazatin Clan
Ledesma Clan Negros Occidental
Lerias Clan Southern Leyte
Leviste Clan Batangas
Libanan Clan Eastern Samar
Ligo Clan Sultan Kudarat
Locsin Clan Negros Occidental
Lobregat Clan Zamboanga City
Loong Clan Sulu
Lopez Clan Iloilo
Loreto Clan Leyte
Lucman Clan Lanao del Sur
Luna Clan Abra
Maamo Clan Southern Leyte
Macapagal Clan Pampanga
Macias Clan Negros Oriental
Madrigal Clan Manila
Maganto Clan Bulacan
Magsaysay Clan Zambales
Malanyaon Clan Davao Oriental
Malinas Clan Mountain Province
Mandanas Clan Batangas
Mangudadato Clan Maguindanao
Marañon Clan Negros Occidental
Marasigan Clan Oriental Mindoro
Marcos Clan Ilocos Norte
Martinez Clan Cebu
Matalam Clan Cotabato
Matba Clan Tawi-Tawi
Mathay Clan Quezon City
Matugas Clan Surigao del Norte
Mayaen Clan Mountain Province
Mayo Clan Batangas
Mendiola Clan Occidental Mindoro
Mercado Clan Leyte
Miranda Clan Isabela
Misuari Clan Sulu
Mitra Clan Palawan
Molinas Clan Benguet
Montelibano Clan Negros Occidental
Montilla Clan Sultan Kudarat
Moreno Clan Misamis Oriental
Mutilan Clan Lanao del Sur
Navarro Clan Surigao del Norte
Nepomuceno Clan Pampanga
Nisce Clan La Union
Ocampo Clan Misamis Occidental
Olivarez Clan Laguna
Olvis Clan Zamboanga del Norte
Ople Clan Bulacan
Ortega Clan La Union
Osmeña Clan Cebu
Ouano Clan Cebu
Padilla Clan Camarines Norte
Pagdanganan Clan Bulacan
Pajarillo Clan
Palma-Gil Clan Davao Oriental
Pancho Clan Northern Samar
Paras Clan Negros Oriental
Paredes Clan Abra
Parojinog Clan Misamis Occidental
Pasificador Clan Antique
Paylaga Clan Misamis Occidental
Payumo Clan Bataan
Pelaez Clan Misamis Oriental
Pelegrino Clan Bohol
Perez Clan Pangasinan
Petilla Clan Leyte
Pichay Clan Surigao del Sur
Pimentel Clan Surigao del Sur
Pineda Clan Pampanga
Plaza Clan Agusan
Ponce de Leon Clan Palawan
Publico Clan Sultan Kudarat
Puno Clan Rizal
Punzalan Clan Quezon
Rabat Clan Davao Oriental
Rama Clan Agusan del Norte
Ramiro Clan Misamis Occidental
Raquiza Clan Ilocos Sur
Real Clan Zamboanga City
Recto Clan Batangas
Redaja Clan Western Samar
Remulla Clan Cavite
Relampagos Clan Bohol
Rengel Clan Bohol
Revilla Clan Cavite
Reyes Clan Marinduque
Reymundo Clan Pasig City
Reyno Clan Cagayan
Robredo Clan Camarines Sur
Romualdez Clan Leyte
Romualdo Clan Camiguin
Rono Clan Western Samar
Roqueros Clan Bulacan
Roxas Clan Capiz
Rodriguez Clan Rizal
Sahidulla Clan Sulu
Salazar Clan Eastern Samar
Salceda Clan Albay
Sali Clan Tawi-Tawi
Salipudin Clan Basilan
San Luis Clan Laguna
Sanchez Clan Cebu
Sandoval Clan Malabon, Navotas, Palawan
Sarmiento Clan Bulacan
Sering Clan Surigao del Norte
Silverio Clan Bulacan
Singson Clan Ilocos Sur
Sinsuat Clan Shariff Kabunsuan
Siquian Clan Isabela
Soliva Clan Agusan del Norte
Sotto Clan Leyte
Sulpicio/Tupas Clan Iloilo
Sumulong Clan Rizal
Tañada Clan Aurora, Quezon
Tanjuatco Clan Rizal
Tatad Clan Catanduanes
Tan Clan Samar, Southern Leyte
Tanco Clan Capiz
Tolentino Clan Tagaytay
Teves Clan Negros Oriental
Trinidad Clan Compostela Valley
Ty Clan
Umali Clan Nueva Ecija
Valentino Clan Marikina City
Valera Clan Abra
Velasco Clan Western Samar
Veloso Clan Leyte
Verceles Clan Catanduanes
Villanueva Clan Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental
Villar Clan Las Pinas, Pangasinan
Villafuerte Clan Camarines Sur
Villareal Clan Capiz
Villaroza Clan Occidental Mindoro
Villegas Clan Negros Oriental
Violago Clan Nueva Ecija
Yap Clan Tarlac
Yebes Clan Zamboanga del Norte
Yulo Clan Laguna, Negros Occidental
Ynares Clan Rizal
Yniguez Clan Leyte
Zubiri Clan Bukidnon

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