Philippine Senate

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Senate of the Philippines
Senate Seal.png
Type Upper house
Houses Senate
Senate President Manuel Villar, Nacionalista
since July 24, 2006
Senate President pro tempore Juan Flavier, Lakas-CMD
since July 22, 2002
Members 24 Senators
currently, only 23 Senators
Political groups Lakas-CMD
Liberal
LDP
Nacionalista
Others
Last elections May 10, 2004
Meeting place GSIS Building, Pasay City
Web site www.senate.gov.ph

The Senate of the Philippines (Filipino: Senado ng Pilipinas) is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines. Unlike the U.S. Senate, the Philippine Senate is composed of 24 senators who are not elected from any particular district or area. They are chosen in a nation-wide election.

Senators serve 6-year terms, with half of the senators elected every 3 years. This way, the Senate is a continuous body. When the Senate was restored by 1987 Constitution the 24 senators who were elected in 1987 served until 1992. In 1992 the candidates for the Senate obtaining the 12 highest number of votes served until 1998, while the next 12 served until 1995 only. Thereafter, each senator elected serves the full 6 years.

The Senate is the only body authorized to ratify treaties.

Contents

History of the Senate

From 1907-1916, the Philippine Commission headed by the U.S. Governor-General served as the upper chamber of the colonial legislature at the same time exercised executive powers. On August 29, 1916 the United States Congress enacted the "Philippine Autonomy Act" or popularly known as the "Jones Law" which paved the way for the creation of a bicameral Philippine Congress wherein the Senate served as the upper chamber and while the House of Representatives as the lower chamber of it. Then Philippine Resident Commissioner Manuel L. Quezon encouraged Speaker Sergio Osmeňa to run for the leadership of the senate, but Osmeňa preferred to continue leading the lower house. Quezon then ran for the Senate and became Senate President for the next 19 years (1916-1935).

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This setup continued until 1935, when the "Philippine Independence Act" or the "Tydings-McDuffie Act" was provided by the U.S. Congress which granted the Filipinos the right to frame their own constitution in preparation for their independence, wherein they established a unicameral National Assembly, effectively abolishing the Senate. Not long after the adoption of the 1935 Constitution several amendments began to be proposed. By 1938, the National Assembly began consideration of these proposals, which included restoring the Senate as the upper chamber of Congress. The amendment of the 1935 Constitution to have a bicameral legislature was approved inm 1940 and the first elections for the restored upper house held in November, 1941. The Senate finally convened in 1945 and served as the upper chamber of Congress from thereon until the declaration of martial law of Pres. Ferdinand Marcos in 1972. which shutdown Congress. The Senate was resurrected in 1987 upon the ratification of the 1987 Constitution.

From 1916 to 1935, the Philippines was divided into 12 Senatorial districts, each district grouped several provinces and each elected 2 senators except for "non-Christian" provinces where the Governor-General of the Philippines appointed the senators for the district, but this was discontinued in 1941 when the Senate was reestablished, wherein all senators were elected on a national basis. The Senate from 1916-1935 had exclusive confirmation rights over executive appointments. As part of the compromises that restored the Senate in 1941, the power of confirming executive appointments has been exercised by a join Commission on Appointments composed of members of both houses. However, the Senate since its restoration and the independence of the Philippines in 1946 has the power to ratify treaties.

In the senate, the officers are the Senate President, Senate President pro tempore, Majority Floor Leader, Minority Floor Leader and the Senate Secretary.

Composition

Article VI, Section 2 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution provides that the Senate shall be composed of twenty-four Senators who shall be elected at large by the qualified voters of the Philippines, as may be provided by law.

The composition of the Senate is smaller in number as compared to the House of Representatives. The members of this chamber are elected at large by the entire electorate. The rationale for this rule intends to make the Senate a training ground for national leaders and possibly a springboard for the presidency.

It follows also that the Senator, having a national rather than only a district constituency, will have a broader outlook of the problems of the country, instead of being restricted by narrow viewpoints and interests. With such perspective, the Senate is likely to be more circumspect, or at least less impulsive, than the House of Representatives.

Qualifications

The qualifications for membership in the Senate are expressly stated in Section 3, Art. VI of the 1987 Philippine Constitution as follows:

  • No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, and on the day of the election, is at least thirty-five years of age, able to read and write, a registered voter, and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election.
  • It is worthy to note that the age is fixed at 35 and must be possessed on the day of the elections, that is, when the polls are opened and the votes cast, and not on the day of the proclamation of the winners by the board of canvassers.
  • With regard to the residence requirement, it was ruled in the case of Lim v. Pelaez that it must be the place where one habitually resides and to which he, after absence, has the intention of returning.

Organization

Under the 1987 Philippine Constitution, “Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session...”. During this time, the Senate is organized to elect its officers. Specifically, the 1987 Philippine Constitution provides a definite statement, to wit:

The Senate shall elect its President and the House of Representatives its Speaker by a majority vote of all its respective members.

Each House shall choose such other officers as it may deem necessary.

x x x

(3) Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings ...

By virtue of these provisions of the 1987 Philippine Constitution, the Senate adopts its own rules, otherwise known as the “Rules of the Senate.” The Rules of the Senate provide the following officers: a President, a President pro tempore, a Secretary and a Sergeant-at-Arms.

Following this set of officers, the Senate as an institution can then be grouped into the Senate Proper and the Secretariat. The former belongs exclusively to the members of the Senate as well as its committees, while the latter renders support services to the members of the Senate.

Committees

Further information: List of Philippine Senate committees

At the core of Congress’ lawmaking, investigative and oversight functions lies the committee system. This is so because much of the business of Congress, it has been well said, is done in the committee. Specific problems, whether local or national in scope, are initially brought to the forum of congressional committees where they are subjected to rigid and thorough discussions.

Congressional hearings and investigations on matters dealing with every field of legislative concern have frequently been conducted by congressional committees.

To a large extent, therefore, the committee system plays a very significant role in the legislative process. Congressional responses and actions vis-a-vis growing national problems and concerns have considerably relied upon the efficiency and effectiveness of the committee structure, system and expertise. As pointed out by Woodrow Wilson regarding the important roles played by different committees of Congress:

"The House sits, not for serious discussion, but to sanction the conclusions of the Committees as rapidly as possible. It legislates in its committee rooms; not by the deliberation of majorities, but by the resolutions of specially-commissioned minorities; so that it is not far from the truth to say that Congress in session is Congress on public exhibition, while Congress in its committee rooms is Congress at work."

On the other hand, the merits of Nelson W. Polsby’s view with regard to the importance of the committee system can be well considered:

"Any proposal that weakens the capabilities of congressional committees weakens Congress. Congressional committees are the listening posts of Congress. They accumulate knowledge about the performance of governmental agencies and about the effects of governmental programs and performance on private citizens. They provide incentives to members of Congress to involve themselves in the detailed understanding of governmental functioning. They provide a basis - virtually the only well institutionalized basis in the House of Representatives - for understanding and for influencing public policy."
"The present committee system in the Senate has by far been the product of strong years of Philippine legislative experience. It draws its strength from the inherent functions it is mandated to perform, i.e., to assist the Congress in coming up with well studied legislative policy enactments. Yet the complexity of problems that our country is currently facing and the growing needs and demands of our people for a more assertive role on the part of Congress cannot but require us to assess the effectiveness as well as the responsiveness of the congressional committee structure and system. In order to survive and meet the challenges, Congress must adjust to external demands and cope with internal stresses. It must be pointed out that social, economic, and political developments generate demands that the legislature pass legislation or take other action to meet constitutional and public expectations concerning the general welfare. The continuing rise of unemployment, poverty, economic depression, scandals, crises and calamities of various kinds, energy problem and accelerating technological innovations, all intensify pressures upon Congress. Political or governmental shifts, aggressive presidential leadership, partisan realignments, and momentous and controversial Supreme Court rulings, among other things, also drive the congressional workload."

However, the effects of external demands create interpersonal stresses within Congress, and in the Senate in particular. For instance, a ballooning workload (external demand) of some committees has caused personal or committee scrambles for jurisdiction (internal stress). Other tensions that may be considered range from the growth in the member-ship of various committees, jurisdictional disputes among several committees, shifts in its personnel, factional disputes and members’ shifting attitudes or norms. Such conflicts surface in recurrent debates over pay, requisites, committee jurisdictions, rules scheduling, and budgetary procedures which necessitate the call for an assessment of the present structure of the Senate Committee System.

Famous Senators

See List of Senators of the Philippines.

Latest election

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 10 May 2004 Senate of the Philippines election results
Rank Candidate Party Votes
1. Manuel Roxas II K-4 - Liberal Party 19,372,888
2. Ramon Revilla Jr. K-4 - Lakas CMD 15,801,531
3. Aquilino Pimentel, Jr. KNP / PDP-LABAN 13,519,998
4. Maria Ana Consuelo Madrigal KNP - Independent 13,253,692
5. Richard Gordon K-4 - Lakas CMD 12,707,151
6. Pilar Juliana Cayetano K-4 - Lakas CMD 12,542,054
7. Miriam Defensor-Santiago K-4 - PRP 12,187,401
8. Alfredo Lim KNP - Independent 11,286,428
9. Juan Ponce Enrile KNP - PMP 11,191,162
10. Jinggoy Estrada KNP - PMP 11,094,120
11. Manuel Lapid K-4 - Lakas CMD 10,970,941
12. Rodolfo Biazon K-4 - Liberal Party 10,635,270
13. Robert Barbers K-4 - Lakas CMD 10,624,585
14. Ernesto Maceda KNP - NPC 9,944,328
15. John Henry Osmeña K-4 - Independent 9,914,179
16. Orlando S. Mercado K-4 - Independent 8,295,024
17. Robert Jaworski K-4 - Lakas-CMD 6,921,425
18. Maria Elisa Anson-Roa KNP - PMP 5,873,845
19. Francisco Tatad KNP - LDP 5,718,740
20. Heherson Alvarez Independent 4,791,085
21. Ernesto Herrera KNP - Independent 4,612,036
22. Perfecto Yasay Jr. Aksyon Demokratiko 4,408,808
23. Francisco Chavez Aksyon Demokratiko 4,286,838
24. Carlos M. Padilla Independent (LDP Aquino Wing) 3,863,693
25. Salvador Escudero III KNP - Independent / NPC 3,780,469
26. Amina Rasul KNP / PDP-LABAN 3,456,480
27. Jose Sonza Aksyon Demokratiko 2,839,442
28. Parouk Hussin K-4 - Lakas-CMD 2,821,522
29. Didagen Dilangalen KNP - PMP 2,222,069
30. Melanio Mauricio Aksyon Demokratiko 1,144,279
31. Pilar Pilapil Independent 692,137
32. Eduardo Nonato Joson Aksyon Demokratiko 631,041
33. Edgar Ilarde Independent 527,865
34. Nicanor Gatmaytan Jr. Aksyon Demokratiko 453,693
35. Olivia Coo Aksyon Demokratiko 338,846
36. Oliver Lozano KBL 238,272
37. Alvin Alvincent Almirante KBL 206,097
38. Ramon Montaño Partido Isang Bansa Isang Diwa 159,735
39. Matuan Usop Partido Isang Bansa Isang Diwa 137,376
40. Angel Rosario Partido Isang Bansa Isang Diwa 98,932
41. Ismael Aparri Partido Isang Bansa Isang Diwa 97,430
42. Norma Nueva KBL 96,129
43. Carmen X. Borja Partido Isang Bansa Isang Diwa 95,755
44. Pendatun Decampong Partido Isang Bansa Isang Diwa 94,713
45. Gerardo del Mundo Independent 88,962
46. El Cid Fajardo Partido Isang Bansa Isang Diwa 79,471
47. Iderlina Pagunuran Partido Isang Bansa Isang Diwa 59,712
48. Arturo Estuita Partido Isang Bansa Isang Diwa 39,094
Note: A total of 48 candidates ran for senator. Source: Philippine Commission on Elections

Important Senate bills and decisions

See also

External links