National Assembly of the Philippines
'The National Assembly of the Philippines refers to legislature of both the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1941 and the Second Philippine Republic from 1943 to 1945. The two National Assemblies were not a continuation of each other, as the National Assembly of the Philippine Commonwealth was established under the 1935 Constitution, which went into exile at the advent of the Second World War in the Pacific, while the National Assembly of the Second Philippine Republic was established under 1943 Constitution, which established a nominally independent Republic of the Philippines recognized mainly by the Axis powers.<ref>RMS-GS Interpreter and Translators - Philippines through th'Italic texte Centuries. Accessed on April 13, 2007.</ref> ''Italic text
Prior to 1935, the Philippine Islands, which was an insular area of the United States had the bicameral Philippine Legislature, established in 1916 under a U.S. federal law – the Jones Law. It was composed of a Senate and a House of Representatives, with some of its members appointed, without the need for any confirmation by the U.S. Governor-General, who also exercised veto power over its legislations.<ref>Chan Robles Virtual Law Library - The Philippine Autonomy Act (Jones Law). Accessed on April 13, 2007</ref> ''Italic text [[In 1934, Filipino politicians obtained the passage of a Philippine independence law known as theTydings-McDuffie Act that allowed them to draft and adopt a constitution, subject to the concurrence of the U.S. President to prepare the Philippines for its eventual independence after a 10-year period.<ref>Chan Robles Virtual Law Library - The Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act). Accessed on April 11, 2007.</ref> In the constitutional convention that followed, a unicameral National Assembly was adopted, after the failure of the constitutional convention delegates to agree on the setup of the bicameral system favored by the majority. It also set the ceiling of its members to a maximum of 120, that were to be elected every three years, similar to what the Jones Law had provided. It entitled every province, regardless of its population to have at least one representative. The convention likewise provided for the direct election of representatives from non-predominantly Christian areas previously appointed by the U.S. Governor-General. ]]
Commonwealth National Assembly
After the 1935 Constitution was ratified, elections were held on September 17, 1935 for the 98 members of the National Assembly simultaneous with the election for the Commonwealth President and Vice President. The Philippine Commonwealth was inaugurated on November 15, 1935 and thus the term of the elected officials began.
The National Assembly first met officially on November 25, ten days after the Commonwealth government was inaugurated and elected Gil M. Montilla of Negros Occidental as its Speaker.<ref>Senators Profile - Gil Montilla. Accessed on April 13, 2007.</ref> It soon organized itself into 3 commissions and 40 standing committees when it adopted its rules on December 6.
The assembly had the task of passing legislations to prepare the Philippines for its eventual independence, however certain legislations dealing with foreign relations and finance still required the approval of the U.S. President. Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon, who had practical control of the National Assembly addressed the body on its inaugural session and laid-out his administration's priorities and legislative agenda. He was able to secure the passage of important legislations without much opposition, after diluting the powers of the Speaker to a mere presiding officer. Among the first of such measures were the National Defense Act of 1935, which created the Philippine Army, the creation of the National Economic Council to serve as advisory body on economic matters, and the creation of the Court of Appeals. Several economic measures were tackled including the impending difficulties on the phase out of free trade between the Philippines and the United States after independence, establishing a minimum wage and the imposition of new taxes among others.<ref>American Colonization. Accessed on April 13, 2007.</ref>
Most of the bills enacted however were drafted by the executive branch and the few that originated from the members themselves were often vetoed by Quezon. In the sessions of the First National Assembly in 1936, 236 bills were passed, of which 25 bills were vetoed, while on its 1938 session 44 bills out of 105 were vetoed due to practical defects, including one which proposed to make religious instruction compulsory in schools – clearly violating the constitutional provision on the separation of Church and State.<ref>The Philippine Free Press Online - "The Church, July 2, 1938". Accessed on April 13, 2007.</ref> The "rubber stamp" legislature<ref>Bureau of Communications Services - Manuel Luis Quezon]. Accessed on April 15, 2007.</ref> then began to criticize Quezon's policies and asserted its independence from the executive and reinstated the inherent powers of the Speaker.
It was also in this period that Filipino women were finally extended universal suffrage. In a plebiscite held on April 30, 1937, 447,725 women voted favorably for it against 44,307.<ref>A Celebration of Her Story: Filipino Women in Legislation and Politics. Accessed on April 13, 2007.</ref>
The second elections for the National Assembly were held on November 8, 1938, under a new law that allowed block voting<ref>Block voting - Philippine Daily Inquirer. Accessed on April 13, 2007.</ref> which favored the governing Nacionalista Party. As expected all the 98 seats of the National Assembly went to the Nacionalistas. Jose Yulo who was Quezon's Secretary of Justice from 1934 to 1938, was elected Speaker.
The Second National Assembly embarked on passing legislations strengthening the economy, unfortunately the cloud of the Second World War loomed over the horizon. Certain laws passed by the First National Assembly were modified or repealed to meet existing realities.<ref>Commonweatlh Act (CA) No. 494 amended CA 444 "Eight House Law" authorizing the President to suspend the law.</ref> A controversial immigration law that set an annual limit of 50 immigrants per country which<ref>Immigration Act of 1940 (CA No. 613), Sec. 13. Accessed on April 13, 2007</ref> affected mostly Chinese and Japanese nationals escaping the Sino-Japanese War was passed in 1940. Since the law bordered on foreign relations it required the approval of the U.S. President which was nevertheless obtained. When the result of the 1939 census was published, the National Assembly updated the apportionment of legislative districts, which became the basis for the 1941 elections.
Restoration of the bicameral legislature
Barred from serving as president beyond 1941, Quezon orchestrated a set of amendments to the 1935 Constitution, which also included restoring the bicameral legislature. It provided for the replacement of the National Assembly by the Congress of the Philippines composed of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Unlike the Jones Law Senate, whereby two senators were elected from each of the 12 senatorial districts the Philippines was divided into, the 1940 amendment prescribed that all the 24 senators were to be elected at-large and were to serve for a staggered 6-year term so that one-third of the Senate membership is replaced every two years. Similar to the National Assembly, the House of Representatives had a cap of 120 members. The amendments which were contained under Resolution No. 38 were adopted by the National Assembly on September 15, 1939, and were ratified in a plebiscite on June 18, 1940. U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt approved it on December 2, 1940,<ref>History of the Senate - Senate of the Philippines. Accessed on April 15, 2007.</ref> effectively paving the way for the abolition of the National Assembly after the incumbency of those elected in 1938 on December 30, 1941.
Outbreak of the Second World War
Through the most part of the life of the Second National Assembly international conflicts that led to the Second World War began to take shape. As early as 1940, the National Assembly already declared a state of national emergency<ref>The Philippine Free Press Online - Emergency Powers. Accessed on April 16, 2007.</ref> to address the escalating emergency conditions of the times. It gave the President extensive emergency powers to meet the worsening conditions. All preparations culminated when Japan attacked the Philippines a few hours after attacking Pearl Harbor and started bombing Philippine cities on December 8, 1941. The National Assembly lost no time in enacting substantive legislations, diverting all remaining funds for national defense purposes and declaring a state of total emergency.<ref>The Sunday Times - PP1017 is not at all similar to PP1081. Accessed on April 16, 2007</ref> It furthered the broad emergency powers already granted to the President such as the transfer of the seat of government and the extension of the effectivity of lapsing laws. In its last act as a legislative body, the National Assembly certified the results of the 1941 elections where Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña were reelected as president and vice president, respectively.
Second Republic National Assembly
- Main article: National Assembly of the Second Philippine Republic
The Commonwealth government was exiled in Washington, D.C. upon the invitation of Pres. Roosevelt.<ref>Philippine History, Flags & Presidents. Accessed on April 16, 2007.</ref> The Japanese took over Manila on January 2, 1942 and soon established the Japanese Military Administration to replace the exiled Commonwealth government. It utilized the existing administrative structure already in place and coerced high-ranking Commonwealth officials left behind to form a government.<ref>Japanese Occupation and the Second Republic of the Philippines. Accessed on April 16, 2007].</ref> In order to win greater support for Japan and its war effort, no less than Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo promised the Filipinos independence earlier than the Tydings-McDuffie Act had scheduled.<ref>TIME - Hirohito is a Little Depressed. Accessed on April 13, 2007.</ref> But before it could be realized a constitution would have to be adopted. The Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence drafted what came to be known as the 1943 Constitution. It provided for a unicameral National Assembly that was to be composed of provincial governors and city mayors as ex officio members and another representative elected from each province and city who were to serve for a term of three years.<ref>Chan Robles Virtual Law Library - 1943 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Article III. Accessed on April 16, 2007.</ref> Though created subordinate to the executive, the National Assembly had the power to elect the President, who in turn appoints the provincial governors and city mayors, ensuring him control of the legislature.
National Assembly convenes
Jorge B. Vargas, chairman of the Philippine Executive Commission addressed the National Assembly at its pre-independence session on September 25, 1943, where it elected as its Speaker Benigno Q. Aquino, Sr. of Tarlac, Commonwealth Secretary of Agriculture and KALIBAPI Director-General, while Jose P. Laurel, Commonwealth Secretary of Justice and Acting Supreme Court Chief Justice in 1941<ref>The Philippine Presidency Project - Jose P. Laurel. Accessed on April 16, 2007].</ref> was elected President of the soon-to-be-independent Republic of the Philippines. The National Assembly also organized itself into 66 committees.
Philippine independence was soon proclaimed on October 14, 1943. Laurel called the National Assembly into a special session from October 17 to 23, wherein it passed resolutions expressing gratitude to the Japanese for its grant of independence. The National Assembly met for its first regular session from November 25, 1943 to February 2, 1944, where it passed a total of 66 bills and 23 resolutions, ranging from the creation of new government agencies to address the existing problems and conditions during the war and other problems which had not been addressed during the Commonwealth period. Since the Philippines now acted as an independent state, the National Assembly created the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and a Central Bank. It also extended additional powers to the President, similar to those granted to Quezon by the Commonwealth National Assembly.
When it ended its session on February 2, 1944, the National Assembly was never to meet again. It was scheduled to meet for its second regular session on October 20, 1944, but American forces had already begun their campaign to liberate the Philippines from Japan with its first attack on Manila on September 21, 1944,  prompting the Japanese to demand the Philippines' declaration of war against the United States. It was only heeded after a compromise that no Filipino would be conscripted into the Japanese military. Realizing that such declaration was not binding until ratified by the National Assembly, the Japanese also demanded that the National Assembly be convened to ratify it, but Laurel remained steadfast on not to convoke the National Assembly to a special session. Two days after the surrender of Japan to the Allied Forces on August 15, 1945, and with the Commonwealth government already restored in Manila, Laurel who was in prison in Japan dissolved the Second Philippine Republic.  Meanwhile, all the laws passed by its National Assembly were invalidated by a proclamation of Gen. Douglas MacArthur on October 23, [[1944  just right after reestablishing the Commonwealth government in Palo, Leyte.
- RMS-GS Interpreter and Translators - Philippines through the Centuries. Accessed on April 13, 2007.
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- Chan Robles Virtual Law Library - The Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act). Accessed on April 11, 2007.
- Senators Profile - Gil Montilla. Accessed on April 13, 2007.
- American Colonization. Accessed on April 13, 2007.
- The Philippine Free Press Online - "The Church, July 2, 1938". Accessed on April 13, 2007.
- Bureau of Communications Services - Manuel Luis Quezon. Accessed on April 15, 2007.
- A Celebration of Her Story: Filipino Women in Legislation and Politics. Accessed on April 13, 2007.
- Block voting - Philippine Daily Inquirer. Accessed on April 13, 2007.
- Commonweatlh Act (CA) No. 494 amended CA 444 "Eight Hour Law" authorizing the President to suspend the law.
- Immigration Act of 1940 (CA No. 613), Sec. 13. Accessed on April 13, 2007
- History of the Senate - Senate of the Philippines. Accessed on April 15, 2007.
- The Philippine Free Press Online - Emergency Powers. Accessed on April 16, 2007.
- The Sunday Times - PP1017 is not at all similar to PP1081. Accessed on April 16, 2007
- Philippine History, Flags & Presidents. Accessed on April 16, 2007.
- Japanese Occupation and the Second Republic of the Philippines. Accessed on April 16, 2007].
- TIME - Hirohito is a Little Depressed. Accessed on April 13, 2007.
- Chan Robles Virtual Law Library - 1943 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Article III. Accessed on April 16, 2007.
- The Philippine Presidency Project - Jose P. Laurel. Accessed on April 16, 2007].
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- Remembering Dr. Jose P. Laurel. Accessed on April 16, 2007.
- G.R. No. L-5 September 17, 1945. Accessed on May 6, 2007.
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- Philippine Historical Association, Philippine Legislature, 100 Years. Quezon City: Philippine Historical Association, 2000: chapter 5. ISBN 971-92245-0-9
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