Papa Isio

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Dionisio Seguela
Alternate name: Papa Isio
Place of birth: Negros Occidental, Philippines
Place of death: Manila, Philippines
Major organizations: babaylanes

Dionisio Seguela, more widely known as Papa Isio (Hiligaynon, Isio the Pope), was the leader of a group of babaylanes (shaman) who were, as conjectured by Modesto P. Sa-onoy, recruited from the remnants of the followers of Dios Buhawi upon the dissolution of his group under the poor leadership of Camartin de la Cruz during the years prior to the onset of the Philippine Revolution.<ref>Calma, Ma. Cecilia C. and Concepcion, Diana R.: The Revolution in Negros., Raison D'Etre, University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos Research Planning and Development Office, Bacolod City, 1998</ref>

According to Sa-onoy, Seguela's nom de guerre, Papa Isio, was partly dictated by the religious thrust of his revolt against Spain and the Catholic religion it championed. The title "Papa" was a repudiation of the Pope's (Santo Papa) authority - which Seguela then appropriated upon himself. This particular group of babaylanes were organized by Seguela in 1896 in Himamaylan, Negros Occidental.<ref>Cuesta, Angel Martinez, OAR: History of Negros., Historical Conservation Society, Manila, 1980</ref>

Seguela was the son of migrants from Panay, who cleared a small piece of land in the forests of Himamaylan. In his younger years, Papa Isio witnessed the loss of their small landholding to the marauding sugar barons of Negros. Fusing religion with agrarian reform and nationalism, Papa Isio called for the removal of non-Malays from Negros and the division of the land among the natives. It is contended that Papa Isio responded to the Philippine Revolution which was began in August 1896 by Andrés Bonifacio. The group of babaylanes was said to have adopted "¡Viva Rizal!" (Spanish, "Long Live Rizal!"), "¡Viva Filipinas Libre" (Spanish, "Long Live a free Philippines!") and "Kamatayon sa Katsila" (Hiligaynon, "Death to Spaniards!") as their battle cries.<ref>Sa-onoy, Modesto P.: Negros Occidental History., Today Printers and Publishers, Bacolod City, 1992</ref>

While Filipino revolutionary General Miguel Malvar, widely acknowledged to be the last leader of the Philippine Revolution to surrender to the Americans, actually capitulated on April 16, 1902, Papa Isio gave up his struggle very much later - on August 6, 1907. Finally cornered by government forces, Isio Papa surrendered to an American officer, Lieutenant J. S. Mohler.<ref name="www.bakbakan.com">EP Dutton & Co.. "Jungle Patrol - Banditry", Bakbakan International, 2001. Retrieved on 2006-11-23. </ref> At first, he was sentenced to death, but the punishment was later mitigated to life imprisonment. Papa Isio died in New Bilibid Prison in Muntinlupa in 1911.<ref name="www.cockatoo.com">"Negros Revolution", www.cockatoo.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-23. </ref>

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Calma, Ma. Cecilia C. and Concepcion, Diana R.: The Revolution in Negros., Raison D'Etre, University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos Research Planning and Development Office, Bacolod City, 1998
  2. ^ Cuesta, Angel Martinez, OAR: History of Negros., Historical Conservation Society, Manila, 1980
  3. ^ Sa-onoy, Modesto P.: Negros Occidental History., Today Printers and Publishers, Bacolod City, 1992
  4. ^ EP Dutton & Co.. "Jungle Patrol - Banditry", Bakbakan International, 2001. Retrieved on 2006-11-23.
  5. ^ "Negros Revolution", www.cockatoo.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-23.


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