Non-Aligned Movement

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File:Map Non-Aligned Movement.png
Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). Light blue states have observer status

The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM, is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. The purpose of the organization as stated in the Havana Declaration of 1979 is to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, apartheid, Zionism, racism and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics".<ref>Fidel Castro speech to the UN in his position as chairman of the nonaligned countries movement 12 October 1979 "For this reason we agreed in Havana to reaffirm that the quintessence of the nonalinement policy, in accordance with its original principles and fundamental nature, is the struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neocolonialism, apartheid, racism, including Zionism."
Pakistan & Non-Aligned Movement, Board of Investment - Government of Pakistan, 2003</ref> They represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations's members and comprise 55% of the world population.

Important members have included Yugoslavia, India, Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan, Cuba, Colombia, Venezuela, South Africa, Iran, Malaysia, and, for a time, the People's Republic of China. Brazil has never been a formal member of the movement, but the country shares many of the aims of NAM and frequently sends observers to NAM summits. While the organization was intended to be as close an alliance as NATO or the Warsaw Pact, it has little cohesion and many of its members were actually quite closely aligned with one or another of the great powers. For example, Cuba was closely aligned with the former Soviet Union during the Cold War era. India was effectively aligned with the Soviet Union against China for many years. Additionally, some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members (e.g. India and Pakistan, Iran and Iraq). The movement fractured from its own internal contradictions when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979. While the client states of the Soviet Union fully supported the invasion, other members (particularly the Muslim states) of the movement found it impossible to do so.

The Non-Aligned Movement has struggled to find relevance since the end of the Cold War. The successor states of Yugoslavia, a founding member, have expressed little interest in the NAM since the country's break-up, and in 2004, Malta and Cyprus ceased to be members of the NAM when they joined the European Union.


The origin of the Non-Aligned Movement

The term "Non-Alignment" itself was coined by Indian Prime Minister Nehru during his speech in 1954 in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations, which were first put forth by the contemporaneous Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. Called Panchsheel (five restraints), these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were:

  1. Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty
  2. Mutual non-aggression
  3. Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs
  4. Equality and mutual benefit
  5. Peaceful co-existence

The origin of the Non-aligned movement can be traced to a conference hosted in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955. The world's "non-aligned" nations declared their desire not to become involved in the East-West ideological confrontation of the Cold War. Bandung marked a significant milestone for the development of NAM as a political movement. The founding fathers of the NAM were five prominent world leaders: Nehru of India, Tito of Yugoslavia, Sukarno of Indonesia, Nasser of Egypt and Nkrumah of Ghana. Their actions were known as The Initiative of Five.

However it was six years later in September of 1961, through the voluntary of Josip Broz Tito, then-president of Yugoslavia, that the first official Non-Aligned Movement Summit was held. As well as Tito and Nehru, the other prominent world leaders instrumental in getting NAM off the ground were Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Sukarno of Indonesia, and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.

The movement lost credibility beginning in the late 1960s when it was seen by critics to have become dominated by states allied to the Soviet Union. Many questioned how countries in alliance with the Soviet Union such as Cuba could claim to be non-aligned. The movement divided against itself over the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.

NAM Summit meetings

Above the leaders of the major Non-Aligned states meet at the United Nations in New York in October 1960. From left to right: Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India, President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, President Sukarno of Indonesia and President Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia.

Generally NAM summits take place every three years. Countries that have hosted NAM summits include Yugoslavia, Egypt, Zambia, Algeria, Sri Lanka, Cuba, India, Zimbabwe, Indonesia, Colombia, South Africa, and Malaysia. After each summit, the president or prime minister of the country where the summit takes place becomes chairman of the movement for the next three years.

The first summit was held at Belgrade in 1961. The summit saw representatives from 25 countries – eleven from both Asia and Africa along with Yugoslavia, Cuba, and Cyprus.

The next meeting was held in Cairo in 1964. It was attended by forty-six nations, with most of the new members being newly independent African states. Much of the meeting involved discussions about the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Indo-Pakistani conflict.

The 1970 meeting in Lusaka was attended by fifty-four nations and was one of the most important with the movement forming a permanent organization to foster economic and political ties. Zambia's president for life, Kenneth Kaunda, played a crucial role in these events.

The 1973 meeting in Algiers saw the movement deal with new economic realities. The 1973 world oil shock had made some of its members vastly richer than the others. The end of the attachment of the U.S. currency to gold, and the dollar's subsequent devaluation, also removed one of the group's largest complaints.

During the 1976 meeting in Colombo, Sri Lanka, members were quick to condemn the United States for an "unprovoked attack on North Korean guards, led by American officers", as presented by Kim Jong-Il, the son of North Korea Leader Kim Il-Sung. A resolution, asking the conference to condemn that day's grave U.S. provocation and calling on participants to endorse both the withdrawal of U.S. forces from Korea and the dissolution of the United Nations Command (UNC), was presented within four hours of the incident, seconded by Cuba, and passed. Afterwards, as more details emerged, it turned out that North Korean guards had started the incident, and out-numbering the UNC forces almost three to one, had killed two American officers.<ref>Hazardous Duty - Singlaub, John K., Major General, chapter 12 (partial reprint with author's permission)</ref>

The 1979 meeting in Havana saw the movement discussing the merits of a "natural alliance" seen by many between the NAM and the Soviet Union. Under the leadership of Fidel Castro, the Summit discussed the concept of an anti-imperialist alliance with the Soviet Union. Prime Minister Michael Manley of Jamaica gave a well-received pro-Soviet speech. Among other things he said, "All anti-imperialists know that the balance of forces in the world shifted irrevocably in 1917 when there was a movement and a man in the October Revolution, and Lenin was the man." Manley also praised Fidel Castro as "humane" and credited him for strengthening the forces committed to the struggle against imperialism in the Western Hemisphere. The final declaration also condemned the Camp David peace accords as an abandonment of the cause of the Arab peoples and an act of complicity with the continued occupation of Arab territories.

The 2006 meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement took place in Havana and Fidel Castro was elected President of the Movement.<ref>"Castro elected President of Non-Aligned Movement Nations", People's Daily, 16-09-2006. Retrieved on 31-01-2007.</ref>. He was, however, unable to make an official appearance at the summit, having recently undergone gastric surgery. The job of host was assumed by Fidel's younger brother Raúl Castro, who had been the acting president of Cuba since his brother's operation. The summit ended with a declaration that condemned what many members saw as Israel's disproportionate military response to the kidnapping of two of its soldiers by the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah (see 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict), called upon the United Nations to be more representative of its smaller member nations, gave support to Iran's nuclear energy plans, and criticized many of United States' foreign policies<ref>"Cuba summit sends strong message", BBC News, 17-09-2006. Retrieved on 31-01-2007.</ref>. In section 119.14, the Nonaligned movement stated that the United States list of state-sponsors of terrorism was "a form of psychological and political terrorism" directed against members of the Non-Aligned Movement. The next NAM summit has been announced to be held in Cairo, Egypt.

NAM Summit Locations and Dates

Member Countries

  1. Afghanistan
  2. Algeria
  3. Angola
  4. Antigua and Barbuda
  5. Bahamas
  6. Bahrain
  7. Bangladesh
  8. Barbados
  9. Belarus
  10. Belize
  11. Benin
  12. Bhutan
  13. Bolivia
  14. Botswana
  15. Brunei
  16. Burkina Faso
  17. Burundi
  18. Cambodia
  19. Cameroon
  20. Cape Verde
  21. Central African Republic
  22. Chad
  23. Chile
  24. Colombia
  25. Comoros
  26. Congo
  27. Côte d'Ivoire
  28. Cuba
  29. Democratic Republic of Congo
  30. Djibouti
  31. Dominica
  32. Dominican Republic
  33. Ecuador
  34. Egypt
  35. Equatorial Guinea
  36. Eritrea
  37. Ethiopia
  38. Gabon
  39. Gambia
  1. Ghana
  2. Grenada
  3. Guatemala
  4. Guinea
  5. Guinea-Bissau
  6. Guyana
  7. Haiti
  8. Honduras
  9. India
  10. Indonesia
  11. Iran
  12. Iraq
  13. Jamaica
  14. Jordan
  15. Kenya
  16. Kuwait
  17. Laos
  18. Lebanon
  19. Lesotho
  20. Liberia
  21. Libya
  22. Madagascar
  23. Malawi
  24. Malaysia
  25. Maldives
  26. Mali
  27. Mauritania
  28. Mauritius
  29. Mongolia
  30. Morocco
  31. Mozambique
  32. Myanmar
  33. Namibia
  34. Nepal
  35. Nicaragua
  36. Niger
  37. Nigeria
  38. North Korea
  39. Oman
  1. Pakistan
  2. Palestine
  3. Panama
  4. Papua New Guinea
  5. Peru
  6. Philippines
  7. Qatar
  8. Rwanda
  9. Saint Lucia
  10. Saint Kitts and Nevis
  11. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  12. São Tomé and Príncipe
  13. Saudi Arabia
  14. Senegal
  15. Seychelles
  16. Sierra Leone
  17. Singapore
  18. Somalia
  19. South Africa
  20. Sri Lanka
  21. Sudan
  22. Suriname
  23. Swaziland
  24. Syria
  25. Tanzania
  26. Thailand
  27. Timor Leste
  28. Togo
  29. Trinidad and Tobago
  30. Tunisia
  31. Turkmenistan
  32. Uganda
  33. United Arab Emirates
  34. Uzbekistan
  35. Vanuatu
  36. Venezuela
  37. Vietnam
  38. Yemen
  39. Zambia
  40. Zimbabwe


Secretaries-general of the Non-Aligned Movement
Name Country Start of Term End of Term
Tito Template:Country data Yugoslavia 1961 1964
Gamal Abdel Nasser Flag of Egypt Egypt 1964 1970
Kenneth Kaunda Flag of Zambia Zambia 1970 1973
Houari Boumédienne Template:Country data Algeria 1973 1976
William Gopallawa Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 1976 1978
Junius Richard Jayawardene Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 1978 1979
Fidel Castro Template:Country data Cuba 1979 1983
N. Sanjiva Reddy Flag of India India 1983 1982
Zail Singh Flag of India India 1982 1986
Robert Mugabe Flag of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 1986 1989
Janez Drnovsek Template:Country data Yugoslavia 1989 1990
Stipe Mesic Template:Country data Yugoslavia 1991 1991
Branko Kostic Template:Country data Yugoslavia 1991 1992
Dobrica Cosic Template:Country data Yugoslavia 1992 1992
Suharto Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 1992 1995
Ernesto Samper Pizano Flag of Colombia Colombia 1995 1998
Andrés Pastrana Arango Flag of Colombia Colombia 1998 1998
Nelson Mandela Flag of South Africa South Africa 1998 1999
Thabo Mbeki Flag of South Africa South Africa 1999 2003
Datuk Seri Mahathir bin Mohammad Flag of Malaysia Malaysia 2003 2003
Datuk Abdullah Ahmed Badwi Flag of Malaysia Malaysia 2003 2006
Fidel Castro Template:Country data Cuba 2006
Raúl Castro Template:Country data Cuba 2006


Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Paraguay, Serbia, Ukraine, Uruguay, People's Republic of China <ref>Observer Countries, Non-Aligned Movement</ref>

See also

External links


<references />

Template:Cold War Template:Non-Aligned Movement

Original Source

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