|Negros Revolution of 1898|
|Part of the Philippine Revolution|
| Cinco de Noviembre Memorial Marker in Silay City, Negros Occidental, Philippines|
Cinco de Noviembre Memorial Marker in Silay City, Negros Occidental, Philippines
|Filipino independence movement||Spanish Empire|
| Juan Araneta and
|Governor Isidro de Castro|
|Casualties and losses|
The Negros Revolution, now commemorated and popularly known as Al Cinco de Noviembre or Negros Day, was a political movement that in 1898]] created a canton|cantonal form of government in Negros Island in the Philippines, ending Spain|Spanish sovereignity and resulting in a government run by the Filipino natives, at least for that part of the archipelago and for a relatively short period of time. The newly established Negros Republic would last for approximately four months, before [[United States of America|American forces landed on the island unopposed on February 2, 1899.
Prelude to Revolution
It has been stipulated that the Spanish civil and religious authorities in Negros did not initially suspect that the sugar barons and traders of the island would participate in an uprising against Spain.<ref>Calma, Ma. Cecilia C. and Concepcion, Diana R.: The Revolution in Negros., Raison D'Etre, University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos Research Planning and Development Office, Bacolod City, 1998</ref> The clergy in Negros had not acquired vast tracts of land, unlike their counterparts in the island of Luzon. Negros had become a rich province and "the local leaders were content, sharing even in many instances the social previleges of the Spanish elite."<ref>Sa-onoy, Modesto P.: Negros Occidental History., Today Printers and Publishers, Bacolod City, 1992</ref>
Negros did not seem enthusiastic about the August 23, 1896 Cry of Balintawak and the subsequent revolt headed by the Tagalog Katipuneros.<ref>Cuesta, Angel Matinez, OAR: History of Negros., Historical Conservation Society, Manila, 1980</ref> Rather, it disapproved the same as battalions of volunteers were organized in Bais, Valladolid, La Carlota and Isabela in order to defend the island. There had been, however, early on, attempts by various groups on the grassroots level to revolt against the Spanish colonizers. See Dios Buhawi and Papa Isio.
However, a greater part of the sugar planters soon began to sympathize towards the proposed ends of the insurrection, until two years later, such sympathy bore fruit when these same sugar planters broke out in open revolt. By that time, Aniceto Lacson, a rich landlord of Talisay City had joined the Katipunan, and Juan Araneta, Rafael Ramos, Carlos Gemora, Venura and other leaders of what would become the revolution of 1898 were negotiating with their comrades in Iloilo and were arming themselves.
By the middle of August, 1898, as numerous rumors of a coming insurrection in the Visayas spread, a number of parish priests sought refuge in Iloilo. The Negrense revolutionaries agreed that the revolt would begin on November 3, 1898. It was to be led by Aniceto Lacson with Nicolas Golez of Silay City as deputy commander. South of Bacolod City, the revolt would be led by Juan Araneta of Bago City with Rafael Ramos of Himamaylan as deputy commander.
Chronicle of the Revolt
Aniceto Lacson rode to Silay. A committee headed by Lacson and acting for the province included Golez, Leandro Locsin and Melecio Severino assembled and decided to begin the revolt on November 5. They then advised Juan Araneta of their decision.
Juan Araneta, from one of his haciendas in Ma-ao, advised all the southern mayors to begin the revolt the following day. In the afternoon, a woman from Kabankalan Norte (the present-day barrio of Eustaquio Lopez) in Silay told Fr. Tomas Cornago of the impending revolt, even though the planning for the same was held secretly. He inquired of his friend, Doroteo Quillama, cabeza of the barrio, seeking to verify the report. The cabeza claimed no knowledge of the revolt. That same afternoon, groups of armed men passed the haciendas of Silay, and proceeded towards the town. The guardia civil in Silay were, however, unable to report this to Bacolod, since the rebels had cut thetelegraph lines in Talisay (Talisay is between Silay and Bacolod) the day before.<ref name="MPS">Sa-onoy, Modesto P., Parroquia de San Diego, Today Printers and Publishers, Bacolod City, Philippines, pp. 49-50</ref>
The revolt began in Central and Northern Negros in the morning and by the afternoon had spread to other towns such as San Miguel and Cadiz. In Silay, Lt. Maximiano Correa, commanding the Spanish garrison, had ten Spanish cazadores (Spanish, literally, "hunters") and seven Filipino civil guards. They were entrenched inside the municipal building, but surrendered without a fight when they realized that the townspeople were determined to burn the building to the ground should there be resistance. The Silay parish priest, Fr. Eulogio Saez, a businessman named Juan Viaplana and Jose Ledesma persuaded the Spanish forces to lay down their arms, but in order to save face, the lieutenant had it appear in the official records that the capitulation was the result of a bloody battle with "dead and wounded littered all over the field of battle".<ref name="MPS"/> Ten Mauser and seven Remington Arms|Remington rifles were surrendered by the Spanish garrison. Later, a Filipino flag embroidered by Olympia Severino and her sisters was hoisted by the victorious townspeople.
In Bacolod, the Spanish Governor of the province, Isidro de Castro, sent a force of 25 cazadores and 16 civil guards to engage a swarm of rebels seen camping near the Matab-ang River. After a brief skirmish, they withdrew, leaving two of their number dead. The Governor decided to make a stand in the Bacolod Convent (presently the Bishop's Palace), where hundreds of Spanish families had taken refuge. They waited for the attack, but it did not come.
In the morning, the rebels advanced upon Bacolod. Lacson and Golez approached from the north, crossing the Mandalagan River. Araneta with a thousand bolo-men took positions at the Lupit River in the south-east of Bacolod. The wily revolutionaries augmented their lightly-armed men with "cannon" made of bamboo and rolled amakan, and "rifles" carved out of wood and coconut fronds. The bluff worked; Governor Castro was persuaded that it was useless to defend the capital.
Jose Luis de Luzuriaga, a rich businessman who was deemed acceptable to both rebels and Spanish authorities was sent to mediate. At noon, a delegation from each of the major belligerents met at the house of Luzuriaga. The rebel delegation included Lacson, Araneta, Golez, Locsin, Simon Lizares, Julio Diaz and Jose Montilla. In an hour, it was agreed by both sides that "Spanish troops both European and native surrendered the town and its defenses uncondionally, turning over arms and communication" and the "public funds would be turned over to the new government".
November 6, 1898, therefore, is the day that the revolution in Negros triumphed.
- The Cinco de Noviembre Memorial in Silay City includes an authentic Spanish colonial-era cannon donated by Mr. Claudio G. Akol, Jr.<ref name="www.sunstar.com.ph">Jose Paolo Ariola. "El cañon de Cinco de Noviembre", SunStar Philippines, November 7, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-11-18. </ref>
Notes and References
- Calma, Ma. Cecilia C. and Concepcion, Diana R.: The Revolution in Negros., Raison D'Etre, University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos Research Planning and Development Office, Bacolod City, 1998
- Sa-onoy, Modesto P.: Negros Occidental History., Today Printers and Publishers, Bacolod City, 1992
- Cuesta, Angel Matinez, OAR: History of Negros., Historical Conservation Society, Manila, 1980
- a b Sa-onoy, Modesto P., Parroquia de San Diego, Today Printers and Publishers, Bacolod City, Philippines, pp. 49-50
- Jose Paolo Ariola. "El cañon de Cinco de Noviembre", SunStar Philippines, November 7, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-11-18.