Manila Light Rail Transit System
|Manila Light Rail Transit System|
|Transit type(s)||Rapid transit|
|Began operation||December 1, 1984|
|System length||28.8 km|
|No. of lines||2|
|No. of stations||29|
|Daily ridership||about 380,000|
|Track gauge||1435 mm (standard gauge)|
|Operator||Light Rail Transit Authority|
The Manila Light Rail Transit System, popularly known as the LRT, is the main metropolitan rail system serving the Metro Manila area in the Philippines. There are two lines to the LRT: LRT-1, called the Yellow Line, and MRT-2, called the Purple Line. Although the system is referred to as a "light rail" system, arguably because the network is mostly elevated, the system is more akin to a rapid transit (metro) system. The Manila LRT is the first metro system in Southeast Asia, built earlier than the Singapore MRT by three years. The system is not related to the Manila Metro Rail Transit System, or the Blue Line, which forms a completely different but linked system.
The LRT forms part of Metro Manila's rail transportation infrastructure, known as the Strong Republic Transit System (SRTS),GMA Launches transit system, Philippine Star, July 15, 2003 and overall public transport system. Although one of the original purposes of the system was to reduce traffic congestion in the metropolis, many commuters who ride the LRT also take various forms of road-based public transport, such as buses, to reach the intended destination from an LRT station and vice-versa. While this forms a comprehensive transportation system serving many parts of Metro Manila, the system has only been partially successful in cutting traffic congestion and travel times, which is further aggravated by the rising number of motor vehicles in Metro Manila.NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLES REGISTERED: Comparative, JAN.- DEC. 2003, 2004, 2005, Land Transportation Office, January 23, 2006 The network's expansion, which has been touted by successive administrations since the LRT's inception, is set upon tackling this problem.
The system is operated by the Light Rail Transit Authority (LRTA), a government-owned and controlled corporation under the authority of the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) as an attached agency.
The LRT network
The LRT by itself consists of two lines: the Yellow Line and the Purple Line. The Yellow Line consists of eighteen stations in a general north-south direction over 15 kilometers of fully elevated track. The line commences at Baclaran and ends in Monumento. The Purple Line consists of eleven stations in a general east-west direction over 13.8 kilometers of mostly elevated track, with Katipunan station lying underground. The line commences at Recto and ends in Santolan. Overall, the network has 29 stations over 28.8 kilometers of track, passing through the cities of Caloocan, Manila, Marikina, Pasay, Pasig, Quezon City and the municipality of San Juan.
Although only two stations exist as interchange stations between the Yellow and Purple Lines, namely, Doroteo Jose and Recto stations, Araneta Center-Cubao (marked as Cubao on the map) and EDSA stations also serve as interchange stations between the LRT network and the Blue Line. The network also has six terminal stations: Baclaran, Central Terminal and Monumento stations for the Yellow Line; and Recto, Araneta Center-Cubao and Santolan stations for the Purple Line. All terminal stations have been designated as transport hubs, where commuters can take other forms of public transport to areas to and from the station.
Both lines are open from 5:00 am PST (UTC+8) until 9:30 pm for the Yellow Line and until 10:00 pm for the Purple Line. On weekends, the Purple Line operates on a shortened schedule from 6:00 am until 8:00 pm. Special schedules, if necessary, are announced via the PA system in every station and on the LRTA website.
The LRT is open every day of the year except when announced. However, the system is closed during the Holy Week for yearly maintenance, owing to fewer commuters in Metro Manila who would patronize the system, as well as lower levels of traffic congestion. Normal operations resume after Easter Sunday.
The roots of the LRT date back to the American colonial period. In 1905, the first tramvia, or tram, opened in Manila and soon grew to five lines servicing many parts of the city of Manila and its outskirts. The trams were hailed as an efficient system for the city's 220,000 inhabitants. The trams were operated by the Manila Electric Railroad and Light Company (Meralco). The current LRT network follows the paths of two of the old tramvia lines.
The tramvia was shut down during World War II. After the war, the city was virtually destroyed, including the tramvia. Manila was second only to Warsaw in damage during the war.
The colorful jeepney restarted Manila's transportation links after the war. Soon, buses and cars were back on Manila's streets. Regional rail services operated by the Philippine National Railways (PNR) were also restored. The problem, however, was congestion and ignorance of traffic regulations.
In 1966, the Philippine government, recognizing the need for an efficient mass transit system, granted a franchise to Philippine Monorail Transport Systems in order to start a monorail system in the city. Before the project could even get started, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) was asked to do a transport study. Its studies proposed a series of circumferential and radial roads, an inner-city rapid transit system, a commuter railway, and an expressway with three branches. A further study was made on how to implement these systems. Many recommendations were put in place, but none of the recommendations involved rapid transit.
Another study, conducted from 1976 to 1977, done by Freeman, Fox & Associates and funded by the World Bank, suggested a street-level railway. The newly-formed Ministry of Transportation and Communications (now the DOTC) then revised the recommendations, which called for an elevated system because of the city's many intersections. The revised recommendation, however, increased the price of the project from 1.5 billion pesos to 2 billion pesos. A supplementary study was conducted by another foreign firm and was done within three months.
On July 12, 1960, President Carlos P. Garcia created the Light Rail Transit Authority by virtue of Executive Order No. 603,Executive Order No. 603, Light Rail Transit Authority Company Profile, retrieved April 7, 2006 which was subsequently amended two years later,Executive Order No. 830, Light Rail Transit Authority Company Profile, retrieved April 7, 2006 and again in 1967.Executive Order No. 210, Light Rail Transit Authority Company Profile, retrieved April 7, 2006 The head of the newly-formed LRTA was the Governor of Metro Manila, Minister of Human Settlements and First Lady, Imelda Marcos. The LRTA was responsible for all operations of the Manila LRT but primarily confined itself to setting and regulating fares, planning extensions, and determining the rules and policies of the LRT. This new project by the LRTA became known as the "Metrorail" (Yellow Line) and was operated by a sister company of Meralco called Metro, Inc.
Initial assistance for the project came from a three hundred million-peso soft loan from the Belgian government. Seven hundred million more pesos came from a consortium of companies comprising Ateliers de Constructions Electriques de Charleroi (ACEC) and BN Constructions Ferroviaires et Métalliques (both companies are now part of Bombardier Transportation), Tractionnel Engineering International (TEI) and Transurb Consult (TC). The consortium provided everything the system needed, from the trains to the needed training. Although the system was expected to pay for itself from revenues within twenty years of the start of operation, it was estimated it would lose money until at least 1993. Against an expected profit of 365 million pesos on its first year of operation, the system was expected to lose 216 million.
Construction on what would be today's Yellow Line started in October of 1961 by the Construction and Development Corporation of the Philippines (now the Philippine National Construction Corporation) with assistance from Losinger, a Swiss firm, and the Philippine subsidiary of Dravo, an American firm. The government appointed Electrowatt Engineering Services of Zürich to oversee construction and eventually became responsible for extension studies for future projects. During construction, the company opened offices in Manila and eventually foresaw a network with 150 kilometers of routes along all major corridors within twenty years. The network envisaged by Electrowatt largely forms the basis for current expansion plans.
The LRT was first test-ran in March of 1964 with the first half of the Yellow Line, from Baclaran to Central Terminal, being officially opened to the public on December 1, 1964. The second half, from Central Terminal to Monumento, was opened on May 12, 1965.
After a few years from opening, however, overcrowding and heavy usage would finally take its toll on the LRT. In 1970, for example, the Yellow Line fell so far into disrepair due to premature wear and tear that trains headed to Central Terminal station had to crawl to the station to avoid further damage to the support beams below, due to cracks that appeared on the support beams.The Metro Manila LRT System—A Historical Perspective, Gary L. Satre, Japan Railway and Transport Review, retrieved May 8, 2006 The premature ageing of the Yellow Line led to a massive refurbishing and structural capacity expansion program which is still being implemented today.
The LRT's next line, the Purple Line, started construction in the 1980s. For the next few years, LRT operations would run smoothly until 2000, when the employees of Metro, Inc. held a strike against the LRTA and paralyzed Yellow Line operations from July 25 to August 2, 1980. Due to this, the LRTA did not renew its operating contract with Metro, Inc., which expired on August 31 of that year.
On April 2, 1983, the first section of the Purple Line, from Santolan to Araneta Center-Cubao, was opened. The second section, from Araneta Center-Cubao to Legarda, was opened exactly a year later, with the line being fully operational by November 2, 1984.LRT - Recto Station Opens, People's Journal, October 28, 2004 During that time, the already-existing Yellow Line was also modernized, with new magnetic stripe plastic tickets and automated ticketing systems, as well as air-conditioned trains. Connections between the Yellow, Purple and Blue Lines,The Missing Links: Now a Reality, Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 7, 2006 as well as other projects, were also completed. In 2006, the LRTA made a profit of 68 million pesos, the first time the agency made a profit since the LRT became operational in 1984.LRTA posts profit, pays P23M in income taxes, Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 24, 2006
Station facilities, amenities and services
With the exception of Katipunan station, all stations on the LRT are above-ground. As of 2004, approximately 380,000 commuters use the LRT network every day.
Station layout and accessibility
LRT stations usually follow two different layouts. Yellow Line stations comprise only of one level, which combines the two areas of all LRT stations: the concourse and platform areas, which are separated by fare gates. However, Yellow Line terminal stations, like Baclaran, and all Purple Line stations comprise of two levels: the concourse level, which is the non-paid area, and the platform level. Usually, the concourse and platform areas are separated by the fare gates near the station platforms at Yellow Line stations, while fare gates separate the concourse level from the access points to the platform level, such as stairs and escalators, at Yellow Line terminal stations and on the Purple Line.
The concourse contains the ticket counters where tickets are purchased at Yellow Line stations, while the concourse at Purple Line stations contains the ticket vending machines where tickets are purchased. Some stations, such as Libertad, are connected to nearby buildings, such as shopping malls, at the concourse, for easier accessibility to those places.
All Yellow and Purple Line stations have side platforms. Part of the platform is cordoned off on the Yellow Line for the use of women passengers and their companions, elderly, and disabled passengers, as the first car in trains on the line are reserved for the use of those passengers. It is currently unknown whether this is done for Purple Line trains. In order to access the other platform, one must exit the station and re-enter on the other side, although this is not the case with the Purple Line. Like many other metro systems, the LRT has restrooms in all stations at the concourse.
The LRT was not originally built with accessibility in mind. This is reflected in the Yellow Line's lack of barrier-free facilities, such as escalators, elevators or wide fare gates. However, the Purple Line, unlike its counterpart, is designed to be barrier-free,LRT 2, Victory Liner are PWD-Friendly: PAVIC, Light Rail Transit Authority Press Release, August 2, 2004 with escalators and elevators in every station, as well as Braille tactiles leading to the station platforms from the escalators and elevators. Elevators also contain Braille writing. Purple Line trains also have special areas for wheelchair-bound passengers, a facility that Yellow Line trains lack.
Shops and services
Located in the concourse of all LRT stations is at least one stall that sells food and drinks. The stalls found usually depend on the station, but some stations have Dimsum 'n Dumplings, Waffle Time and other food stalls. Usually, stations would have a couple of stalls in the concourse area. Other services, such as stores where you can purchase mobile phone credits, ATMs and stores that sell other goods are usually found at street level outside the station.
Some stations, such as Central Terminal and Araneta Center-Cubao, are directly connected to or are near shopping malls and other large shopping areas, where passengers are offered more shopping varieties.
In cooperation with the Philippine Daily Inquirer, commuters are offered a copy of the Inquirer Libre, a free, tabloid-size, Tagalog version of the Inquirer, which is available from 6 am until supplies run out at the station. It is available in all Yellow Line stations except Bambang, Central Terminal, Quirino Avenue and Vito Cruz, and is also available at Santolan and Katipunan stations on the Purple Line.
The LRT has always presented itself as a safe system to travel in. This has been affirmed by the LRTA and by government officials and so far the LRT has lived up to that reputation. Safety notices in both English and Tagalog are also a common sight at LRT stations and inside LRT trains.
Incidents and accidents
Incidents and accidents are rare aboard the LRT, but there have been notable events throughout the LRT's history:
|December 30, 2000||Blumentritt||On Rizal Day, a Yellow Line car exploded near Blumentritt station as part of a series of explosions in a terrorist attack known as the Rizal Day bombings. The attack on the LRT killed some 22 people and injured hundreds. Eight members of both Jemaah Islamiyah and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), which include Hambali, Asia's most wanted man, and the late Fathur Roman al-Ghozi, were charged with plotting and masterminding the attacks in 2003, some three years after the attacks. Three suspects are now on trial.Terrorist raps filed vs Asia's most wanted man, Philippine Daily Inquirer, July 8, 2003DOJ Indicts Asia's Most Wanted Terrorist in 2000 LRT Bombing, Department of Justice Press Release, July 7, 2003|
|May 5, 2005||Doroteo Jose||Lea Aquino Ababa of Pasay City gave birth to a baby girl inside Doroteo Jose station on her way to Fabella Memorial Hospital for a checkup, the first time a baby was born and the first time an LRT passenger gave birth inside an LRT station. She was named Dorotea, after the name of the station.Childbirth at Doroteo Jose Station, Light Rail Transit Authority Press Release, December 1, 2005|
|Late May 2005||Vito Cruz||A fisherman jumped off a moving LRT train headed northbound and landed on the tracks. After that incident, he was then subsequently hit by a southbound LRT train, with the man being dragged under the train until the train stopped at Vito Cruz station at about 3:00 pm. LRTA employees then took him to Philippine General Hospital, where he suffered from massive head injuries and eventually died at 8:00 pm. Police say it was an apparent suicide after his wife left him for another man.|
|August 18, 2005||Unknown||In a report by the Philippine Star on August 18, 2005, another man was either pushed off or jumped off a moving LRT train, landing on the tracks. He was then hit by another LRT train. LRTA officials called a code yellow alert and brought the man to the hospital. As of press time, the man was in critical condition.|
|June 22, 2006||Santolan and Katipunan||At about 6:15 am on June 22, 2006, MRT-2 operations from Santolan to Katipunan were halted for about three hours due to a power glitch that occurred between the two stations. LRTA engineers discovered that a piece of tin that broke one of the overhead wires, causing delays for passengers who had to be transferred via coach to Anonas station, the closest open station of the network for passengers boarding from Santolan and Katipunan. Full line operations resumed by 9:30 am after the wire was repaired.Power glitch halts LRT 2 for 3 hours, Manila Bulletin, June 22, 2006|
|July 12, 2006||Santolan and Katipunan||Hundreds of passengers were stranded after lightning caused by Tropical Storm Bilis (Florita) struck one of the overhead wires, causing the line to break and forcing operations from Santolan to Katipunan to stall. Operations from Recto to Anonas continued as normal while linemen were, as of press time, repairing the damaged wire.LRT operations from Katipunan to Santolan stations stall, Philippine Daily Inquirer, July 12, 2006|
In the event of emergencies or unexpected events aboard the LRT, the following code alerts are used to inform passengers about the current state of LRT operations:
|Code Yellow 1||Results in a slight delay in the departure and arrival of trains from the stations|
|Code Yellow 2||Results in the temporary suspension of all LRT services due to technical problems|
Passengers at LRT stations are advised to not stay too close to the red tiles at the edge of the platforms (or yellow tiles in the case of the Purple Line) to avoid falling onto the tracks. Passengers are prohibited from eating, drinking or smoking inside the platform area of all LRT stations and inside the trains. Bags are also inspected for prohibited goods, such as chemicals and knives. Passengers are also inspected by guards using a handheld metal detector.
Without the written consent of the LRTA, photography of any kind is banned inside the LRT, although local and foreign media outlets are usually exempt from this restriction. This is largely due to safety reasons, such as the possible distraction of the train driver and the possibility of blinding passengers, as well as to avoid a repeat of events such as the Rizal Day bombings. Permission can be obtained by going to the LRTA headquarters in Pasay City, although there is a waiting period that usually lasts three days. However, while this is enforced in the stations and even in the LRTA offices, this is not strictly enforced in the trains.
In response to the Rizal Day bombings and the September 11th attacks, security has been stepped up onboard the LRT. The Philippine National Police has a special LRT police force,New task force formed to keep LRT, MRT safe, The Daily Tribune, November 13, 2004 and security police provided by private companies can be found in all LRT stations. All LRT stations have a head guard.
The Purple Line also employs the use of closed-circuit television inside all stations to monitor suspicious activities and to assure safety and security aboard the line. Closed-circuit television is not employed on the Yellow Line.
Passengers are also advised to look out for loose criminals, who can take advantage of the crowding aboard LRT trains. Wanted posters are posted at all LRT stations to help commuters identify and possibly spot a loose criminal.
The fare structure of the LRT is distance-based, with fares ranging from 12 to 15 pesos (about 23 to 29 U.S. cents), depending on the destination. Before December 15, 2003, the Yellow Line used a flat fare of 12 pesos. The Purple Line also had a 12-peso flat fare before the line went into full operation.LRTA RATIONALIZES FARE STRUCTURE, Light Rail Transit Authority Press Release, December 12, 2003 Ticket and Fare Structure, Light Rail Transit Authority Passenger Information, retrieved April 6, 2006
The LRT is particularly known for its low fares. It is known for being the cheapest rapid transit system in Southeast Asia, being significantly cheaper than other regional metro systems.LRT FARES LOWEST IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, Light Rail Transit Authority Press Release, December 5, 2003
The LRT uses two different fare structures which vary by line.
The Yellow Line has two different fare structures, one for single-journey ticket holders and one for stored-value ticket holders. Commuters in possession of single-journey tickets are charged 12 pesos for the first four stations and 15 pesos for subsequent stations. For stored-value ticket holders, commuters are charged 12 pesos for the first four stations, 13 pesos for five to eight stations, 14 pesos for nine to twelve stations and 15 pesos for more than twelve stations or the entire line.
The Purple Line, on the other hand, has only one fare structure for single-journey and stored-value ticket holders. Commuters are charged 12 pesos for the first three stations, 13 pesos for four to six stations, 14 pesos for seven to nine stations and 15 pesos for more than nine stations or the entire line.
Types of tickets
The LRT system uses two types of tickets: a single-journey (one-way) ticket whose cost is dependent on the destination, and a stored-value (multiple-use) ticket ranging from 100 to 200 pesos. Senior citizens or disabled passengers may buy a special stored-value ticket for 96 pesos. The same system is used on the Purple Line, with the exception that fares are same for both single-journey and stored-value tickets. The Purple Line also has a special ticket for LRTA employees, which is not employed on the Yellow Line.
The stored value tickets are common to both lines, though a ticket bought in a Yellow Line station will bear the Yellow Line ticket design and the same goes for tickets originating from the Purple Line. The tickets employ a scheme called the "Last Ride Bonus", where the final ride of the stored-value ticket is given for free, regardless of direction. A condition in using the Last Ride Bonus, however, is that the amount of money remaining in the card must be less than the minimum 12-peso LRT fare or the appropriate fare for the station of arrival from the station of departure. This is one of the few schemes that the LRTA is using to promote the use of stored-value tickets.LRT PASSENGERS URGED TO USE STORED VALUE TICKET, Light Rail Transit Authority Press Release, December 10, 2003 However, stored-value tickets are not reloadable.
Before 2001, Yellow Line riders would buy a token for 12 pesos. However, subsequent upgrades in the fare collection system eventually transitioned the Yellow Line from a token-based system to a ticket-based system, with full conversion to a ticket-based system by September 9, 2001.The Automated Fare Collection System (AFCS) Project, Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 7, 2006 Tickets, though, are still sold over the counter. Ticket machines have been installed at all stations on the Purple Line.
All Yellow and Purple Line tickets (except the Purple Line stored value ticket) bear a picture of the incumbent President. At present, all Yellow and Purple Line tickets (except the Purple Line stored value ticket) bear the picture of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo; however, ticket designs vary by line.
The Flash Pass
The system also utilizes the "Flash Pass", a pass for use on all three rapid transit lines in the Metro Manila area (the Yellow, Purple and Blue Lines). The pass costs 250 pesos and may be used for multiple rides on any of the metro lines for one week. The system was introduced on April 19, 2004.For LRT, MRT riders: 1 ticket, 3 lines, Manila Standard Today, April 20, 2004
The Flash Pass actually consists of two parts: a card and a ticket (known as a coupon). The Flash Pass Card is issued the first time a Flash Pass Coupon is purchased and is used to validate a Flash Pass Coupon, as well as to purchase subsequent Flash Pass Coupons. The card is issued free of charge; however, replacing a lost or stolen Flash Pass Card entails some paperwork, but is still replaced free of charge. The Flash Pass Coupon, on the other hand, is the actual ticket used when riding the LRT and is directly linked to the Flash Pass Card through the Flash Pass Card number printed on the coupon. Because of this, a Flash Pass Coupon cannot be used with another Flash Pass Card except the card of which the Flash Pass Coupon was issued to.
It was believed that the Flash Pass was a precursor to a unified ticketing system utilizing contactless smart cards, similar to the Octopus card in Hong Kong and the EZ-Link card in Singapore.LRT, MRT smart cards for commuters, Manila Bulletin, December 10, 2003Single Pass Rail Ticket May Be Ready Ahead of Schedule, Manila Times, February 2, 2004 However, this project has since been dropped.INTEGRATED TICKETING SYSTEMS FOR VARIOUS LRT LINES, National Economic and Development Authority Project Profile, retrieved April 7, 2006
Four types of rolling stock run on the LRT, with three types used on the Yellow Line and another used on the Purple Line.
The Yellow Line runs light rail vehicles made either in South Korea by Adtranz or in Belgium by ACEC (both companies are now part of Bombardier Transportation) with the addition of the new trains from Japan made by Kinki Sharyo. With heavy use, three types of trains have run on the line throughout its history: a two-car train, a three-car train, and a four-car train. The two-car trains are the original first-generation ACEC (numbered from 1000) trains which were eventually transformed into three-car trains, although some two-car trains remain in service. The four-car trains are the more modern second-generation Adtranz (numbered from 1100) and third-generation Kinki Sharyo (1200) trains.
The Yellow Line fleet is undergoing modernization as it copes with increasing ridership. The trains now have an increased capacity of 1350 passengers (the original two-car trains could hold 748 passengers while the modified three-car trains could hold 1122 passengers), air conditioning for the original fleet, and technical repairs.The LRT Line 1 Capacity Expansion Project (Phase I), Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 7, 2006The LRT Line 1 Rehabilitation I Project: Phase 3 - Rolling Stock Rehabilitation, Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 7, 2006
Yellow Line rolling stock in the past was particularly notorious for their lack of air conditioning. Instead, forced-air roof ventilation was used.No More 'Sweaty' LRT Rides, Philippine Star, August 15, 2003 Unfortunately, the use of forced-air roof ventilation led to a very hot and stuffy ride aboard the line. The problem was first addressed in 2001 under the LRTA's still-ongoing capacity expansion program and by June 2004, all Yellow Line trains had air conditioning.LRT to have all air-conditioned trains by April, Manila Times, September 26, 2003LRT Line 1 Capacity Expansion Project (Phase II): Package B, Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 7, 2006 However, the air conditioning units of some of the second-generation trains have stopped functioning, somewhat exacerbating the problem.
As part of the second phase of expansion on the Yellow Line, twelve new trains made in Japan by Kinki Sharyo and provided by the Manila Tren Consortium was shipped in the third quarter of 2006 and went into service in the first quarter of 2007. The new trains feature ergonomic seating and other features designed to make it more user-friendly, and are also fully air-conditioned. The new trains are expected to boost the capacity of the line from 27,000 passengers per hour per direction (pphpd) to 40,000 pphpd.3rd Generation LRV Mock Up on Display, Light Rail Transit Authority Press Release, March 9, 2006 The trains entered service on December 11, 2006.'3G' trains to serve LRTA riders Dec. 11: More comfortable, safer rides assured for commuter, Philippine Daily Inquirer, December 7, 2006.
The Purple Line, unlike the Yellow Line, runs full metro cars made in South Korea by ROTEM and provided by the Asia-Europe MRT Consortium, which is led by the Marubeni Corporation. The Purple Line fleet runs eighteen four-car trains which have a capacity of 1622 passengers, 272 more than the Yellow Line. The line's trains also feature air-conditioning, driverless, automatic train operations based at the Operations Control Center (OCC) in Santolan, as well as closed-circuit television inside the trains. Purple Line trains are also roomier, easier to use and more disabled-friendly than their counterparts on the Yellow Line.
There are two depots for the entire system: the Yellow Line uses Baclaran Depot, which is at LRTA headquarters in Pasay City, near Baclaran station, while the Purple Line uses Santolan Depot in Marikina City, near Santolan station in Pasig City.
Plans for expanding the LRT network have been formulated throughout its history. Successive administrations have touted the LRT as one of the keys to decongesting Metro Manila and relieving the metropolis of its long-standing traffic problems. The expansion of the LRT is one of the key projects in the ten-point agenda of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.SONA - Executive Summary, July 2005, Office of the President, July 21, 2005
A southern extension of the Yellow Line, also known as LRT-6, is proposed. The extension has 10 stations over some 11.7 kilometers and will be the first line extending outside the Metro Manila area with the line ending in Bacoor in Cavite. An unsolicited bid to conduct this work from Canada's SNC-Lavalin was rejected by the Philippine government in 2005. In 2006, the government is working with advisers (International Finance Corporation, White & Case, Halcrow and others) to conduct an open-market invitation to tender for the extension and a 30-year concession to run the extended LRT-1 line.LRTA set to bid out $841-M light rail project, Philippine Daily Inquirer, October 13, 2003LRT 1 consortium seeks gov't. guarantee, Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 20, 2005The LRT Line 1 South Extension Project, Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 7, 2006 Two further 11-kilometer extensions, one to Imus and another to Dasmariñas, both in Cavite, is also proposed.
A 4-kilometer eastern extension of the Purple Line from Marikina City, crossing into Cainta in Rizal and finally to Masinag Junction in Antipolo City, also in Rizal, is proposed. It was approved in principle by the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA),Extension of LRT Line 2 to Antipolo gets NEDA backing, Philippine Daily Inquirer, October 14, 2003 but the actual proposal is pending before the NEDA secretariat.Project ID 543, National Economic and Development Authority Project Profile, retrieved April 7, 2006 In the future, the line could be extended as far west as Manila North Harbor and as far east as Cogeo in Antipolo.The Metro Manila Strategic Mass Rail Transit Development Project: Line 2, Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 6, 2006.
MRT-4, a new line, is proposed. The 22.6-kilometer line starts at a station close to Recto station on the Purple Line and Doroteo Jose station on the Yellow Line, near the Old Bilibid prison, and ends in Novaliches in Quezon City. The line is expected to have a capacity of 550,000 passengers, the largest of all of the lines. Currently, this line has finished the bidding stage. It is suggested that the line would be renamed the Red Line.
MRT-7 is a proposed 13-station, 21-kilometer line that starts in Quezon City and traverses through Commonwealth Avenue, passing through Caloocan City and ending in the city of San Jose del Monte in Bulacan. This line finished the bidding stage and has been approved by the Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation and Communications.Mercado cites a new MRT line, Philippine Star, April 6, 2004MRT-7 project gets clearance from Transportation Department, BusinessWorld, September 28, 2005 This extension is pending approval before NEDA.
MRT-8, or the East Rail Line, is a proposed 48-kilometer line crossing through Metro Manila and the provinces of Laguna and Rizal. Several tunnel sections between the municipalities of Pililla in Rizal and Santa Cruz in Laguna would be built in the process. Phase I of the line would begin in Santa Mesa in Manila and end in Angono in Rizal, and would consist of 16.8 kilometers of elevated track, following the general alignment of Shaw Boulevard and Ortigas Avenue.
On 29 July 2010, Department of Transportation and Communications (CoTC) head Secretary Jose de Jesus declared that a price hike is possible, citing that the government spends more that five billion pesos a year for MRT operations and maintenance. At this time, MRT General Manager Reynaldo Berroya, mentioned that he is considering a hike from P15 maximum MRT fare to P25, generating an additional P1 billion income a year, a necessary increase to the P1.8 billion the railway line makes annually.
It was also noted that the government subsidizes fares at an average P45 per passenger, meaning that without government support, riding the railway line would cost P60.
Several groups slammed the impending hikes, reasoning that the commuters should not be made to bear the weight of the government's financial shortcomings. Bayan Muna party-list Representative Teddy Casiño petitioned the government to slow down the implementation of the hike. Aquino had criticized how the previous government had not increased the rates, making a gradual hike more difficult. Bagong Alyansang Makabayan stated that it is not for the commuters to take up the weight of the administration's financial problems.
- Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC)
- Light Rail Transit Authority (LRTA)
- List of rapid transit systems
- List of Strong Republic Transit System stations
- Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 1 (LRT-1)
- Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 2 (MRT-2)
- Manila Metro Rail Transit System Line 3 (MRT-3)
- Rizal Day bombings
- Strong Republic Transit System (SRTS)
- Transportation in the Philippines
- ^ GMA Launches transit system, Philippine Star, July 15, 2003
- ^ NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLES REGISTERED: Comparative, JAN.- DEC. 2003, 2004, 2005, Land Transportation Office, January 23, 2006
- ^ Executive Order No. 603, Light Rail Transit Authority Company Profile, retrieved April 7, 2006
- ^ Executive Order No. 830, Light Rail Transit Authority Company Profile, retrieved April 7, 2006
- ^ Executive Order No. 210, Light Rail Transit Authority Company Profile, retrieved April 7, 2006
- ^ The Metro Manila LRT System—A Historical Perspective, Gary L. Satre, Japan Railway and Transport Review, retrieved May 8, 2006
- ^ LRT - Recto Station Opens, People's Journal, October 28, 2004
- ^ The Missing Links: Now a Reality, Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 7, 2006
- ^ LRTA posts profit, pays P23M in income taxes, Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 24, 2006
- ^ LRT 2, Victory Liner are PWD-Friendly: PAVIC, Light Rail Transit Authority Press Release, August 2, 2004
- ^ Terrorist raps filed vs Asia's most wanted man, Philippine Daily Inquirer, July 8, 2003
- ^ DOJ Indicts Asia's Most Wanted Terrorist in 2000 LRT Bombing, Department of Justice Press Release, July 7, 2003
- ^ Childbirth at Doroteo Jose Station, Light Rail Transit Authority Press Release, December 1, 2005
- ^ Power glitch halts LRT 2 for 3 hours, Manila Bulletin, June 22, 2006
- ^ LRT operations from Katipunan to Santolan stations stall, Philippine Daily Inquirer, July 12, 2006
- ^ New task force formed to keep LRT, MRT safe, The Daily Tribune, November 13, 2004
- ^ LRTA RATIONALIZES FARE STRUCTURE, Light Rail Transit Authority Press Release, December 12, 2003
- ^ Ticket and Fare Structure, Light Rail Transit Authority Passenger Information, retrieved April 6, 2006
- ^ LRT FARES LOWEST IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, Light Rail Transit Authority Press Release, December 5, 2003
- ^ LRT PASSENGERS URGED TO USE STORED VALUE TICKET, Light Rail Transit Authority Press Release, December 10, 2003
- ^ The Automated Fare Collection System (AFCS) Project, Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 7, 2006
- ^ For LRT, MRT riders: 1 ticket, 3 lines, Manila Standard Today, April 20, 2004
- ^ LRT, MRT smart cards for commuters, Manila Bulletin, December 10, 2003
- ^ Single Pass Rail Ticket May Be Ready Ahead of Schedule, Manila Times, February 2, 2004
- ^ INTEGRATED TICKETING SYSTEMS FOR VARIOUS LRT LINES, National Economic and Development Authority Project Profile, retrieved April 7, 2006
- ^ The LRT Line 1 Capacity Expansion Project (Phase I), Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 7, 2006
- ^ The LRT Line 1 Rehabilitation I Project: Phase 3 - Rolling Stock Rehabilitation, Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 7, 2006
- ^ No More 'Sweaty' LRT Rides, Philippine Star, August 15, 2003
- ^ LRT to have all air-conditioned trains by April, Manila Times, September 26, 2003
- ^ LRT Line 1 Capacity Expansion Project (Phase II): Package B, Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 7, 2006
- ^ 3rd Generation LRV Mock Up on Display, Light Rail Transit Authority Press Release, March 9, 2006
- ^ '3G' trains to serve LRTA riders Dec. 11: More comfortable, safer rides assured for commuter, Philippine Daily Inquirer, December 7, 2006
- ^ SONA - Executive Summary, July 2005, Office of the President, July 21, 2005
- ^ LRTA set to bid out $841-M light rail project, Philippine Daily Inquirer, October 13, 2003
- ^ LRT 1 consortium seeks gov't. guarantee, Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 20, 2005
- ^ The LRT Line 1 South Extension Project, Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 7, 2006
- ^ Extension of LRT Line 2 to Antipolo gets NEDA backing, Philippine Daily Inquirer, October 14, 2003
- ^ Project ID 543, National Economic and Development Authority Project Profile, retrieved April 7, 2006
- ^ The Metro Manila Strategic Mass Rail Transit Development Project: Line 2, Light Rail Transit Authority Project Update, retrieved April 6, 2006
- ^ Mercado cites a new MRT line, Philippine Star, April 6, 2004
- ^ MRT-7 project gets clearance from Transportation Department, BusinessWorld, September 28, 2005
- ^ *Groups slam looming MRT, LRT fare hikes. The Philippine Online Chronicles (Accessed 3 August 2010).
- Light Rail Transit Authority
- Urbanrail.net - Manila LRT
- Yehey! LRT Guide (LRT-1 only)
- Manila rail transit network map