Karate (空手) or karate-do (空手道) is a Japanese martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands from indigenous fighting methods and Chinese martial arts (Chinese kenpō).<ref name="Higaonna1"> Higaonna, Morio (1985). Traditional Karatedo Vol. 1 Fundamental Techniques, 17. ISBN 0-87040-595-0. </ref><ref name="okinawa history"> http://www.wonder-okinawa.jp/023/eng/001/001/index.html history of Okinawan Karate</ref> It is primarily a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes and open-handed techniques such as knife-hands and ridge-hands. Grappling, locks, restraints, throws, and vital point strikes are taught in some styles.<ref>Bishop, Mark (1989). Okinawan Karate, 153–166. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2. Chapter 9 covers Motobu-ryū and Bigeikan, two 'ti' styles with grappling and vital point striking techniques. Page 165, Seitoku Higa: "Use pressure on vital points, wrist locks, grappling, strikes and kicks in a gentle manner to neutralize an attack."</ref> A karate practitioner is called a Karateka.
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