The Kalibugans are said to be from the Subanon community who submitted themselves to the practice of intermarriages and change of faith. The Kalibugans are Islamized Subanons, an indigenous peoples found in the interior reaches of the two Zamboanga provinces. The word Kalibugan is a Sama-Tausug slang which literally means "half breed," and it is used to designate those Subanons who migrate to the coast and inter-married with Sama or Tausug villagers and embraced Islam. They remained Subanon in speech and in their culture. Kalibugans lack a distinctive political organization. Most live their lives as subsistence farmers cultivating upland rice, roots, and tree crops. Their external trade relations tend to be dominated by their Sama-Tausug neighbors.
- "Kalibugan" http://www.ncip.gov.ph/resources/ethno_detail.php?ethnoid=101(July 16, 2007)