Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon
(To view the Filipino version of this article, click Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon)
The HUKBALAHAP (Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon or “People's Army Against the Japanese”) started out as guerrillas against the Japanese during World War II and eventually became rebels against the government after the war. The Huks as they were commonly known were the armed faction of the Communist Party of the Philippines.
On 10 December 1941, the Communist Party of the Philippines issued an anti-Japanese manifesto declaring their support to the allies and prepared for guerrilla warfare. During the Japanese invasion, peasant leaders met at the junction of Tarlac, Pampanga, and Nueva Ecija on 29 March 1942 to form a united organization which they named “Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Mga Hapon.” After the meeting, a military committee for this group was formed made up of Luis Taruc, Castro Alejandrino, Bernardo Poblete, and Felepa Culala. The bulk of the organization came from its members in Central Luzon. After the Fall of Bataan to the Japanese in 1942, the Huks carried on the fight for the remainder of the occupation period. The organization proved highly successful as a guerrilla group killing many Japanese troops as well as wealthy Filipinos who collaborated with the Japanese. They established a regional government, collected taxes, and administered their own laws. The returning U.S. Army which promised to free the country from Japanese occupation was suspicious of the Huks because of their Communist leadership. Tension between the Huks and the Philippine government arose over the issue of surrender of arms. When the Philippines was finally granted independence, an election was held in 1946 and the HUKBALAHAP participated. The organization's leader, Luis Taruc, as well as other Huk candidates, won a seat in Congress but was unseated by the Liberal Party. The Huks then returned to Central Luzon and began their rebellion against the Philippine government.
The HUKBALAHAP Rebellion against the Philippine government lasted from 1946 to 1954. The Huks were defeated in their plots of rebellion in 1950 by the joint forces of the Philippine government and U.S. forces and also by the administrative reforms executed under President Ramon Magsaysay.
In 1954, Taruc surrendered and the HUKBALAHAP Rebellion came to an end. Even without its leader, the movement persisted and continued to operate in the province of Pampanga and eventually became an active anti-government organization until the 1970s.
- “Hukbalahap Rebellion” Britannica.com (Accessed 11 November 2009)
- “Hukbalahap” Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com (Accessed 11 November 2009)
- “Pinas sa Panahon ng Hapon” Elaput.org (Accessed 11 November 2009)
- “The Hukbalahap Movement” Globalsecurity.org (Accessed 17 November 2009)