Dios Buhawi

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Ponciano Elofre, later called Dios Buhawi (Hiligaynon, God of the Whirlwind), was a cabeza (Spanish, literally, "head") of a barangay in Zamboanguita in Negros Oriental, Philippines, and the leader of a politico-religious revolt in Negros during the Spanish colonization.

As early as 1887, Elofre began his revolt when, as cabeza de barangay, he failed to collect all the taxes from his constituents. Spanish soldiers beat his father to death in order to teach him a lesson. Thereafter, he rallied the people against the forced payment of taxes. Later, he included religious freedom as part of his agenda, and he directed the celebration of the ancient rites of the babaylan (shaman), a revival of the religious leader of the olden times. He and his followers were later called the babaylanes.

In August of 1888, he raided Siaton, the town adjoining Zamboanguita, and he was killed in the encounter with colonial forces. His wife, Flaviana Tubigan, continued his revolt, but she lacked the charm and charisma of her husband. Camartin de la Cruz, of Tolong in southern Negros Oriental, took over the helm from the deceased Elofre's wife. His command of the babaylanes degenerated into simple banditry. While the Spanish authorities failed in their bid to capture him, on September 11, 1893, he was killed in a trap laid by his own mistress, Alfonsa Alaidan.

The remaining Buhawi followers, conjectures Modesto P. Sa-onoy, were later recruited by Papa Isio when he began to organize his own group of babaylanes in another revolt against Spain.<ref>Calma, Ma. Cecilia C. and Concepcion, Diana R.: The Revolution in Negros., Raison D'Etre, University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos Research Planning and Development Office, Bacolod City, 1998</ref>

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