|Region||Ilocos Region (Region I)|
|Area|| 37.20 km²|
|Total (2000)|| 130,328|
The City of Dagupan is a 1st class city in the Philippines. It is an independent component city of the province of Pangasinan. According to the 2000 census, Dagupan City has a population of 130,328 people in 25,921 households. Located on Lingayen Gulf on the island of Luzon, Dagupan is the chief port and commercial and financial center of Northern Luzon; an active trade is conducted in sugarcane, corn, rice, copra, salt, and an alcoholic liquor produced from the nipa palm. The city is known as the bangus (milkfish) capital of the Philippines because of its abundance of fresh bangus. The city's name is derived from dagupan in the local Pangasinan language meaning 'gathering place' as the city has been a regional market center for centuries.
When the Spaniards arrived in Pangasinan in the 16th century, they found that Lingayen Gulf was already a prosperous entrepot visited by traders from other Asian countries. The Augustinian missionary Juan de la Concepcion noted that the communities at Lingayen, Bolinao and the defunct Binalatongan exercised authority over other communities (called baley in the Pangasinan language) in the area. De la Concepcion also mentioned several other towns but did not identify them.
Spanish colonial period
The area that is now known as Dagupan was described as marshland thickly covered with mangrove and nipa palm trees. The natives lived along the shoreline and riverbanks of Calmay, Pantal, and Bonuan. But there were also communities in Malaued, Lasip, Pogo, and Bacayao. The natives called the area Bacnotan which would later be incorporated into the encomienda of Lingayen that was established in 1583.
The foreign traders would come to the Lingayen coast to trade gold that was brought down to the area by tribesmen in the Cordillera Mountains. Aside from traders, Filipinos also had experience with pirates from Japan and China. One of the Chinese corsairs was Lim Feng (in Fukienese, Lim A-hong), who would be known in Philippine history as Limahong.
Limahong sailed down the Ilocos coast with 62 ships and attacked Manila on November 30, 1574. The Spanish, however, repulsed Limahong's two attacks. The Chinese corsair repaired to Pangasinan to establish a colony at Bacnotan on December 2, 1574. But the Spanish conquistador Juan de Salcedo laid siege on his fortress for eight months by blocking the river outlets. Limahong purportedly broke through the siege by digging a channel from the Agno River through the Bacnotan marshes to Lingayen Gulf
In 1661, a big fire hit Bacnotan during the Malong Revolt, led by Andres Malong of Binalatongan, against the forced labor and mandatory sale of local goods imposed by the Spanish colonial government. The fire broke out after Malong sent 3,000 supporters, most of whom were Zambal tribesmen, to Ilocos and Cagayan to fight the Spaniards. The people of Bacnotan, many of whom joined the Spanish in repelling the Zambal marauders, rebuilt the town and renamed it Nandaragupan, meaning where once stood the commercial center, indicating its early importance as a trade, commercial and political center in the region. In 1720, Nandaragupan was chartered as a town but its name was simplified to Dagupan. Malong was eventually beheaded in the city's Pantal bridge in 1661 by Spanish authorities.
Dagupan was also the birthplace of a ladino named Caragay who led another uprising in 1719 against the provincial governor (alcalde mayor, in Spanish) who had him flogged for what appeared to be a false accusation of smuggling. Governor Antonio del Valle had Caragay arrested in the village of Nantagalan, northeast of San Jacinto and Mangaldan and flogged. Vowing vengeance, Caragay organized a band of men who hounded the governor until they were able to kill him. Historians view Caragay as a "model" of the revolts of Palaris and Diego Silang. In 1762, Dagupan would be one of the first towns to join the Palaris Revolt against Spain.
In 1780, Pantal, originally named Pantalan (port), became a trading center and docking station for merchant ships. At about the same time, the bangus industry thrived and mangrove swamps were converted into fishponds, starting the land conversions that would later have an impact on flooding and earthquake damage in the province. The opening of the Pantalan dock eased the transportation of goods from Pangasinan to other parts of the country, spurring the cultivation of idle lands in the eastern part and the development of fishponds in the western part of the province. The new dock also eased communications between the colonial government, its soldiers and the missionaries, who were tasked to colonize the natives in the Cordillera Mountains and the Cagayan Valley region and exploit its gold deposits.
In July 1787, the Spanish began to build a road to connect Pangasinan and the Cagayan Valley, the home of several head-hunting tribesmen who refused to submit to Spanish rule. Although it took several years to complete, the road would play a vital role in the colonization of the Cagayan Valley and the Cordillera Mountains.
The Palaris and Silang revolts, which occurred simultaneously with the British Invasion of the Philippines demonstrated to the Spaniards the importance of ports in Pangasin and Ilocos to the security of the entire island of Luzon. They thus became centers of Spanish governance and acculturation in the 19th century. When the port of Manila was opened to foreign trade in 1830, tobacco from Pangasinan and Cagayan Valley were shipped to the colonial capital via Dagupan and Lingayen. Foreign trading agents also began to make appearances in the two towns, starting a new era of prosperity, especially for the provincial gentry.
The Filipino scholar Maximo Kalaw found the description of the American writer David Barrows as appropriate:
The Filipino had now become embarked upon a new current of intellectual experience—a course of enlightenment which has been so full of unexpected development. Throughout the islands a class was rapidly growing up to which the new industries had brought wealth. Their means enabled them to build spacious and splendid homes of the fine hardwoods of the Philippines, and to surround themselves with such luxuries as the life of the islands permitted. This class was rapidly gaining education.
This was also true of the Dagupan gentry. Trade enriched many families and allowed them to send their scions to study overseas. These young men returned to the Philippines not only with technical knowledge in their chosen fields but also with the intellectual currents of the time, including constitutional republicanism which swept Spain in 1810.
News from the colonial government in Manila also reached Dagupan at a faster pace with the completion of the Manila-Dagupan Railway in 1891. The railway would play a significant role not only in the economic development of Pangasinan but also in the success of the Philippine Revolution.
Under the First Philippine Republic
Not much is known of Dagupeños involvement in the Katipunan and the first and second parts of the Philippine Revolution. But on March 7, 1898, the Dagupeños unveiled a coordinated attack on Spanish forces that appears to have been planned months in advance. It is now known as the Battle of Dagupan (1898)
The Dagupeño leaders of the attack were Juan Solis Galvan, Teodoro Villamil, Pedro de Venecia, Macario Meneses and Daniel Maramba. They were under the overall command of Francisco Macabulos, who had just liberated the provinces of Pampanga and Tarlac. He was assisted by Ramon Manalang, who was based in Alaminos. Communications between Macabulos and Manalang was coordinated by Macario Meneses of Bonuan.
The Spanish forces were commanded by Federico Caballos, who had troops garrisoned at all the towns of Pangasinan. In Dagupan, he had men at the Colegio de San Alberto Magno, which guarded the western approach to the town; at the foot of Quintos Bridge, which guarded the east; and his main force at the Catholic Church.
Although the revolutionary forces were ill equipped (most of them armed only with bolos and lances), they attacked the Spanish with an ingenious rolling trench. The "trenches" were made of several banana tree trunks, wrapped in sheets of dried nipa palm leaves. The trenches were seven feet in diameter and the revolutionists would roll the it toward Spanish positions so they could fight them in close quarter with their bolos and lances.
Galvan led the back at the Colegio de San Alberto Magno while Villamil and De Venecia swooped down on the enemies at Quintos Bridge. The Tagalog forces from Nueva Ecija, who were better armed, joined the Dagupeños who attacked the Spanish position at the church. The Dagupeños held the Spanish troops at bay in Dagupan while other revolutionists liberated other towns in the province. Maramba later joined the battle after fighting in Sta. Barbara and Mangaldan.
By July 21, after four months and 16 days, Macabulos unleashed a concerted attack. The Spanish and Filipino troops exchanged fire for two nights and a day before Caballos surrendered on July 23, 1898, six weeks after the Declaration of Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898.
After the town returned to normal, President Emilio Aguinaldo named Galvan president of the municipal council. Galvan was a ranking officer of the Katipunan. Galvan Street along which the public market was built was named after him.
American colonial period
On January 8–January 9, 1945, U.S. General Douglas MacArthur landed his amphibious liberation force in the city's "Blue Beach" section along the Lingayen Gulf. From his beachhead in Dagupan, along with those in neighboring towns Lingayen, Binmaley and San Fabian, MacArthur's forces under General Walter Krueger were able to penetrate Japanese defenses in Luzon island and liberate Filipino and allied prisoners of war in Manila's University of Sto. Tomas.
Dagupan becomes a city
On October 15, 1947, President Roxas issued Executive Order No. 96 fixing the city limits to include the towns of San Fabian, Pangasinan and Calasiao, Pangasinan but the residents of Calasiao rejected inclusion into the new city, causing controversy over the election that was held on November 10, 1947.
The dispute was brought before the Supreme Court of the Philippines which subsequently validated the election and ruled that Dagupan became a city on June 20, 1947, when Roxas signed the charter into law.
Despite the controversy attending Dagupan's rise as a city, the new city mayor, Angel B. Fernandez, embarked on an infrastructure program that would develop erswhile idle swamplands toward the south and west.
In 1948, he built a road from barrio Mayombo to barrio Tapuac, passing through the edge of barrio Pogo Chico. The road, built mostly on reclaimed swampland, was named Perez Boulevard, in honor of Dagupan's first lawyer and Assemblyman Rodrigo Perez. The road was needed because of the increasing number of commercial establishments on Torres Bugallon Avenue and the growing number of residents at the southern limits of the city. In 1946, the Dagupan City High School was transferred from Torres Bugallon Avenue. Perez Boulevard expanded the commercial area south especially after Fernandez built a new public market at the bank of the river.
Later, Fernandez's successor Teofilo Guadiz, who served from 1954–1957 and 1958–1959, would also contribute to the city's expansion by extending Rizal Street, which was only then from Torres Bugallon to Rivera Street, up to the Iglesia ni Cristo compound. Also, he extended Galvan Street, which was then up to Gomez Street only, up to Perez Boulevard. He also secured funds from Senator Cipriano P. Primicias Sr., a native of Pangasinan, to build a two-story semi-permanent building for the city high school. Guadiz also replaced the Bailey bridge on Perez Boulevard with a concrete one.
The westward expansion of the city went as far as Lucao which was also swampland. Local historian Restituto Basa surmised that the name Lucao may have been derived from the shellfish called lukan that used to abound in the swampy area.
In June 1962, Dagupan was shaken by a series of strong earthquakes which occurred at irregular intervals for about three weeks. The quakes toppled the belfry of the Roman Catholic Church. The epicenter of the earthquake was in Calmay, where real estate values dropped after the temblors. Many people from Calmay, Carael and island barrios evacuated to other towns.
In 1968, the national government agencies opened offices in Dagupan and other key cities across the country. The daytime population increased sustantially, causing congestion in the city that began to see the appearance of public utility tricycles.
Many public and private structures were destroyed or damaged when river banks slid into the Pantal River and dry land into the swampy areas. Streets were ruptured and the ground subsided, causing buildings to sink by as much as two meters. Other buildings tilted severely, especially along Perez Boulevard. One building tilted by as much as 19 degrees, but generally, the magnitude of tilt was within 2 to 5 degrees.
There were sand boils in several areas in the city and drainage systems were clogged by the accumulated sand causing temporary flooding of the city's main thoroughfares. Some houses remained underwater by 30–50 cm. for several months. The whole stretch of Don Jose Calimlim Street and swampy areas and fishpond communities, such as Barangay Lasip Grande, remained underwater even during low tide conditions.
At the height of the earthquake, an eyewitness told experts of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology that he saw rolling during the earthquake and a jeep parked along the road vanished from his sight.
Scientists blamed the destruction on the liquefaction of land that was had not compacted enough since it was reclaimed from the swamp or marsh. It was also blamed on the active shifting of Pantal River, which left abandoned meanders on which people built structures. Varying degrees of damage were sustained in the different affected areas of Dagupan City. Phivolcs said a study of the damage during the earthquake indicate that susceptibility to liquefaction in different parts of Dagupan City can be related to the relative ages of the geologic features and the deposits underlying them.
The degree of destruction along A.B. Fernandez Avenue, which largely lies on reclaimed swampland, was generally less than that in the Perez Blvd. area except near its intersection with Rizal Street. The great degree of liquefaction along a 100 m stretch of A.B. Fernandez Ave. can be traced to changes in the channel of Pantal River. Prior to north eastward expansion of Dagupan City, Pantal River used to meander around the area now partly occupied by A.B. Fernandez Ave. and Rizal St. before running parallel to Pantal Road.
Dagupan City is politically subdivided into 31 barangays.
Tourism and recreation
Orient Pacific Center East Gate Mall CSI Citimall NepoMall KiCaCo Caffe' , Pusa ng Bayan, Footprints Footspa and Massage, Gloria Jean Coffee, Star Plaza Hotel, Lenox Hotel, Luxor Hotel, Regency Hotel, Inn Asia, Jam Sweet Jam Resto, Enso Sushi Bar, Mjelyca's Cafe, Deli Grace Cafe, Zola, Gloria Maris, Kebab Marley, Park and Kim
FM Radio Stations:
- DWKT - 90.3 Energy FM
- DWTL - 93.5 Campus Radio
- DWEC - 94.3 MOR For Life!
- DZYO - 97.1 Easy Rock (Starts on August 3, 2012)
- DWID - 98.3 Love Radio
- DWTJ - 99.3 Spirit FM (from Alaminos City)
- DWHY - 100.7 Star FM
- DZVP - Radyo5 102.9 News FM
- DWON - 104.7 i FM
- DZCT - Jam 105.9
- DWHR - 106.3 Hot FM
- DWHT - 107.9 RMN Dagupan
AM Radio Stations:
- DZRH-Dagupan - 1161 Aksyon Radyo
- DZWN - 1125 Bombo Radyo
- DWPR - 1296 Power Radio
- DZRD - 981 Sunshine Radio
- DZSD - 1548 Super Radio
- DWIN - 1125 Eagle Radio (Relay Station only)
- DZDL - 1215 Galing Radyo
- DZDG - 1224 (RBC Radio)
- DWCR - 1332 (MBN News Radio)
- DZMQ - 576 Radyo ng Bayan
It is accessible by bus from Manila. The bus lines are:
- Victory Liner
- Dagupan Bus Company
- Five Star
- Fermina Express
Universities and Colleges
- Kingfisher School of Business and Finance
- Lyceum-Northwestern University
- University of Pangasinan
- University of Luzon
- Colegio de Dagupan (Computronix College)
- College of St. Michael the Archangel
Primary and secondary education
- Dagupan City National High School
- EDNAS School
- Dominican School
- Pangasinan Universal Institute
- Mother Goose Playskool and Gradeschool
- Divine Word Academy
- St. Albert the Great School
- St. John's Cathedral School
- Living Lights Academy Foundation
- Bonuan Boquig National High School
- Kingfisher School of Business and Finance
- Judge Jose de Venecia Memorial National High School
- Escuela de Nuestra Senora de La Sallette
- Fransisco Q. Duque Medical Foundation Special Science High School
- Newton Study Center
- Ahead Tutorial Center
- Kinder Creche Co- After School Activities
- What's Up Dagupan?
- Aro Pangasinan!
- Pamagalang Ed Pangasinan
- Dagupan Directory
- Pangasinan Wikipedia
- Official website of the Provincial Government of Pangasinan
- Dagupan City Fiesta 2006 official website |Celebrating Life!
- Dagupan Bangus Festival official website |Celebrating the World's Longest Barbecue
- World's Longest Barbeque by Guinness World Records
- Dagupan High School & City Photos
- Philippine Standard Geographic Code
- 2000 Philippine Census Information
- Pangasinan: Preservation and Revitalization of the Pangasinan Language and Literature
- Pangasinan blog