Congress

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In politics, a congress ("a gathering of people") is the name of the main legislative body in a state that operates under a congressional system of government. In non-political usage congress is a term applied to a large national or international grouping of people meeting together with common interests or concerns, e.g. an academic conference.

Contents

Political congress

Legislative congress

Countries with Congresses and presidential systems:

  • The Congress of the Philippines (Filipino: Kongreso ng Pilipinas) is the legislative branch of the Philippine government.
  • The United States Congress is the bicameral legislative branch of the United States federal government.
  • The Congress of Mexico (Spanish: Congreso de la Unión) is the legislative branch of Mexican government.
  • The Congress of Peru|Congress of the Republic of Peru (Spanish: Congreso de la República) is the unicameral legislature of Peru.
  • The Argentine National Congress|Congress of the Argentine Nation (Spanish: Congreso de la Nación Argentina) is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina.
  • The National Congress of Brazil (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) is Brazil's legislature.
  • The National Congress of Chile (Spanish: Congreso Nacional) is the legislative branch of the government of Chile.
  • The National Congress of Ecuador is the unicameral legislature of Ecuador.
  • The Congress of Guatemala (Spanish: Congreso de la República) is the unicameral legislature of Guatemala.
  • The Congress of Honduras (Spanish: Congreso Macional) is the legislative branch of the government of Honduras.
  • The Congress of the Federated States of Micronesia is the unicameral legislature of the Federated States of Micronesia.
  • The Congress of the Dominican Republic is the bicameral legislature of the Dominican Republic.
  • The Congress of Paraguay is the bicameral legislature of Paraguay.
  • The National Congress of Bolivia is the national legislature of Bolivia.

Other Countries with Congresses:

  • The legislature of the People's Republic of China is known in English as the National People's Congress. The PRC is nevertheless not a congressional system.
  • In France, the congrès is a formal and exceptional joint meeting of Parliament of France|both houses of Parliament in order to ratify an amendment to the Constitution.
  • Spanish Congress of Deputies (Spanish: Congreso de los Diputados), the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch

Political gatherings

Congress has also been used to describe certain historical gatherings, such as

  • the Congress of Gniezno (1000)
  • the Congress of Vienna (1815), reorganizing Europe after the Napoleon wars,
  • the Congress of Berlin (1877-78), reorganizing conditions in the Balkans,
  • the Congress of Tucumán (1816)
  • The Congress of Panama was an 1826 meeting of representatives from several Latin American republics organized by Simon Bolivar in an attempt to promote Pan-American unity.
  • The National Congress of Belgium was a temporarly legislative assembly in 1830, formed to create a constitution for the new state.

It has been used for meetings of independence-minded nationalists or revolutionaries:

  • The United States [[Continental Congress
  • The Indian National Congress
  • The Iraqi National Congress
  • The African National Congress

(Note, the political parties mentioned above also began as groups of this type).

Congress is also part of the name of certain international bodies, such as

  • The Congress of the Council of Europe.

Non-political congress

Scientific congress

Congress is an alternative name for a large national or international academic conference.

Chess congress

A Chess congress is a chess tournament, in one city, where a large number of contestants gather to play competitive chess over a limited period of time; typically one day to one week.

See also