Computer Science

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Programming language theory Computational complexity theory
Computer graphics Human–computer interaction
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems. [1]

Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory (which explores the fundamental properties of computational and intractable problems), are highly abstract, while fields such as computer graphics emphasize real-world visual applications. Other fields still focus on challenges in implementing computation. For example, programming language theory considers various approaches to the description of computation, while the study of computer programming itself investigates various aspects of the use of programming language and complex systems. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans. Template:TOClimit

Contents

History

Template:History of computing [[File:Babbage40.png|upright|thumb|Charles Babbage is sometimes referred as "father of computing". [2] [[File:Ada lovelace.jpg|upright|thumb|Ada Lovelace is credited with writing the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer.<ref>Ada Lovelace | Babbage Engine | Computer History Museum.</ref> ]]

The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division. Further, algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the development of sophisticated computing equipment.

Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in 1623.<ref>Wilhelm Schickard - Ein Computerpionier.</ref> In 1673, Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner.<ref>A Brief History of Computing.</ref> He may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, for, among other reasons, documenting the binary number system. In 1820, Thomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry<ref group=note>In 1851</ref> when he released his simplified arithmometer, which was the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculator, his Difference Engine, in 1822, which eventually gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculator, his Analytical Engine.<ref>Science Museum—Introduction to Babbage. Archived from the original on 2006-09-08. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.</ref> He started developing this machine in 1834, and "in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer".<ref name="Hyman1982">Anthony Hyman (1982). Charles Babbage, pioneer of the computer. </ref> "A crucial step was the adoption of a punched card system derived from the Jacquard loom"<ref name="Hyman1982" /> making it infinitely programmable.<ref group=note>"The introduction of punched cards into the new engine was important not only as a more convenient form of control than the drums, or because programs could now be of unlimited extent, and could be stored and repeated without the danger of introducing errors in setting the machine by hand; it was important also because it served to crystallize Babbage's feeling that he had invented something really new, something much more than a sophisticated calculating machine." Bruce Collier, 1970</ref> In 1843, during the translation of a French article on the Analytical Engine, Ada Lovelace wrote, in one of the many notes she included, an algorithm to compute the Bernoulli numbers, which is considered to be the first computer program.<ref>A Selection and Adaptation From Ada's Notes found in Ada, The Enchantress of Numbers," by Betty Alexandra Toole Ed.D. Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, CA. Archived from the original on February 10, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-05-04.</ref> Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information; eventually his company became part of IBM. In 1937, one hundred years after Babbage's impossible dream, Howard Aiken convinced IBM, which was making all kinds of punched card equipment and was also in the calculator business<ref>"In this sense Aiken needed IBM, whose technology included the use of punched cards, the accumulation of numerical data, and the transfer of numerical data from one register to another", Bernard Cohen, p.44 (2000)</ref> to develop his giant programmable calculator, the ASCC/Harvard Mark I, based on Babbage's Analytical Engine, which itself used cards and a central computing unit. When the machine was finished, some hailed it as "Babbage's dream come true".<ref>Brian Randell, p. 187, 1975</ref>

During the 1940s, as new and more powerful computing machines were developed, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors.<ref>The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) was founded in 1947.</ref> As it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general. Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the 1950s and early 1960s.<ref name="Denning_cs_discipline"/><ref>Some EDSAC statistics. Cl.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2011-11-19.</ref> The world's first computer science degree program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science, began at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory in 1953. The first computer science degree program in the United States was formed at Purdue University in 1962.<ref>Computer science pioneer Samuel D. Conte dies at 85. Purdue Computer Science (July 1, 2002). Retrieved on December 12, 2014.</ref> Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights.

Although many initially believed it was impossible that computers themselves could actually be a scientific field of study, in the late fifties it gradually became accepted among the greater academic population.<ref name="Levy1984">Levy, Steven (1984). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-19195-2. </ref><ref name="Tedre2014">Tedre, Matti (2014). The Science of Computing: Shaping a Discipline. Taylor and Francis / CRC Press. </ref> It is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. IBM (short for International Business Machines) released the IBM 704<ref>IBM 704 Electronic Data Processing System—CHM Revolution. Computerhistory.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-07.</ref> and later the IBM 709<ref>IBM 709: a powerful new data processing system. Computer History Museum. Retrieved on December 12, 2014.</ref> computers, which were widely used during the exploration period of such devices. "Still, working with the IBM [computer] was frustrating […] if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, and you would have to start the whole process over again".<ref name="Levy1984"/> During the late 1950s, the computer science discipline was very much in its developmental stages, and such issues were commonplace.<ref name="Tedre2014"/>

Time has seen significant improvements in the usability and effectiveness of computing technology.<ref>Timeline of Computer History. Computer History Museum. Retrieved on November 24, 2015.</ref> Modern society has seen a significant shift in the users of computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base. Initially, computers were quite costly, and some degree of human aid was needed for efficient use—in part from professional computer operators. As computer adoption became more widespread and affordable, less human assistance was needed for common usage.

See also: History of computing and History of informatics

Contributions

The German military used the Enigma machine (shown here) during World War II for communications they wanted kept secret. The large-scale decryption of Enigma traffic at Bletchley Park was an important factor that contributed to Allied victory in WWII.<ref name="kahnbook"/>

Despite its short history as a formal academic discipline, computer science has made a number of fundamental contributions to science and society—in fact, along with electronics, it is a founding science of the current epoch of human history called the Information Age and a driver of the Information Revolution, seen as the third major leap in human technological progress after the Industrial Revolution (1750–1850 CE) and the Agricultural Revolution (8000–5000 BC).

These contributions include:

Etymology

See also: Informatics#Etymology

Although first proposed in 1956,<ref name="Tedre2014"/> the term "computer science" appears in a 1959 article in Communications of the ACM,<ref name="Fine_1959"> Louis Fine (1959). "The Role of the University in Computers, Data Processing, and Related Fields". Communications of the ACM 2 (9): 7–14. DOI:10.1145/368424.368427. </ref> in which Louis Fein argues for the creation of a Graduate School in Computer Sciences analogous to the creation of Harvard Business School in 1921,<ref>Stanford University Oral History. Stanford University. Retrieved on May 30, 2013.</ref> justifying the name by arguing that, like management science, the subject is applied and interdisciplinary in nature, while having the characteristics typical of an academic discipline.<ref name="Fine_1959"/> His efforts, and those of others such as numerical analyst George Forsythe, were rewarded: universities went on to create such programs, starting with Purdue in 1962.<ref>Donald Knuth (1972). "George Forsythe and the Development of Computer Science". Comms. ACM. Template:Webarchive</ref> Despite its name, a significant amount of computer science does not involve the study of computers themselves. Because of this, several alternative names have been proposed.<ref>Matti Tedre (2006). The Development of Computer Science: A Sociocultural Perspective. Retrieved on December 12, 2014.</ref> Certain departments of major universities prefer the term computing science, to emphasize precisely that difference. Danish scientist Peter Naur suggested the term datalogy,<ref> Peter Naur (1966). "The science of datalogy". Communications of the ACM 9 (7). DOI:10.1145/365719.366510. </ref> to reflect the fact that the scientific discipline revolves around data and data treatment, while not necessarily involving computers. The first scientific institution to use the term was the Department of Datalogy at the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1969, with Peter Naur being the first professor in datalogy. The term is used mainly in the Scandinavian countries. An alternative term, also proposed by Naur, is data science; this is now used for a distinct field of data analysis, including statistics and databases.

Also, in the early days of computing, a number of terms for the practitioners of the field of computing were suggested in the Communications of the ACMturingineer, turologist, flow-charts-man, applied meta-mathematician, and applied epistemologist.<ref>"Communications of the ACM". Communications of the ACM 1 (4). DOI:10.1145/368796.368802. </ref> Three months later in the same journal, comptologist was suggested, followed next year by hypologist.<ref>Communications of the ACM 2(1):p.4</ref> The term computics has also been suggested.<ref>IEEE Computer 28(12):p.136</ref> In Europe, terms derived from contracted translations of the expression "automatic information" (e.g. "informazione automatica" in Italian) or "information and mathematics" are often used, e.g. informatique (French), Informatik (German), informatica (Italian, Dutch), informática (Spanish, Portuguese), informatika (Slavic languages and Hungarian) or pliroforiki (πληροφορική, which means informatics) in Greek. Similar words have also been adopted in the UK (as in the School of Informatics of the University of Edinburgh).<ref>P. Mounier-Kuhn, L'Informatique en France, de la seconde guerre mondiale au Plan Calcul. L'émergence d'une science, Paris, PUPS, 2010, ch. 3 & 4.</ref> "In the U.S., however, informatics is linked with applied computing, or computing in the context of another domain."<ref>[1]</ref>

A folkloric quotation, often attributed to—but almost certainly not first formulated by—Edsger Dijkstra, states that "computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes."<ref group=note>See the entry "Computer science" on Wikiquote for the history of this quotation.</ref> The design and deployment of computers and computer systems is generally considered the province of disciplines other than computer science. For example, the study of computer hardware is usually considered part of computer engineering, while the study of commercial computer systems and their deployment is often called information technology or information systems. However, there has been much cross-fertilization of ideas between the various computer-related disciplines. Computer science research also often intersects other disciplines, such as philosophy, cognitive science, linguistics, mathematics, physics, biology, statistics, and logic.

Computer science is considered by some to have a much closer relationship with mathematics than many scientific disciplines, with some observers saying that computing is a mathematical science.<ref name="Denning_cs_discipline" /> Early computer science was strongly influenced by the work of mathematicians such as Kurt Gödel and Alan Turing, and there continues to be a useful interchange of ideas between the two fields in areas such as mathematical logic, category theory, domain theory, and algebra.<ref name="Tedre2014"/>

The relationship between computer science and software engineering is a contentious issue, which is further muddied by disputes over what the term "software engineering" means, and how computer science is defined.<ref> (2011) "Computing as a Science: A Survey of Competing Viewpoints". Minds and Machines 21 (3): 361–387. DOI:10.1007/s11023-011-9240-4. </ref> David Parnas, taking a cue from the relationship between other engineering and science disciplines, has claimed that the principal focus of computer science is studying the properties of computation in general, while the principal focus of software engineering is the design of specific computations to achieve practical goals, making the two separate but complementary disciplines.<ref> (1998) "Software engineering programmes are not computer science programmes". Annals of Software Engineering 6: 19–37. DOI:10.1023/A:1018949113292. , p. 19: "Rather than treat software engineering as a subfield of computer science, I treat it as an element of the set, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, […]"</ref>

The academic, political, and funding aspects of computer science tend to depend on whether a department formed with a mathematical emphasis or with an engineering emphasis. Computer science departments with a mathematics emphasis and with a numerical orientation consider alignment with computational science. Both types of departments tend to make efforts to bridge the field educationally if not across all research.

Philosophy

A number of computer scientists have argued for the distinction of three separate paradigms in computer science. Peter Wegner argued that those paradigms are science, technology, and mathematics.<ref>Template:Cite conference</ref> Peter Denning's working group argued that they are theory, abstraction (modeling), and design.<ref> (Jan 1989) "Computing as a discipline". Communications of the ACM 32: 9–23. DOI:10.1145/63238.63239. </ref> Amnon H. Eden described them as the "rationalist paradigm" (which treats computer science as a branch of mathematics, which is prevalent in theoretical computer science, and mainly employs deductive reasoning), the "technocratic paradigm" (which might be found in engineering approaches, most prominently in software engineering), and the "scientific paradigm" (which approaches computer-related artifacts from the empirical perspective of natural sciences, identifiable in some branches of artificial intelligence).<ref> (2007) "Three Paradigms of Computer Science". Minds and Machines 17 (2): 135–167. DOI:10.1007/s11023-007-9060-8. </ref>

Areas of computer science

{{#invoke:labelled list hatnote|labelledList|Further information}} As a discipline, computer science spans a range of topics from theoretical studies of algorithms and the limits of computation to the practical issues of implementing computing systems in hardware and software.<ref name="CSAB1997">Computing Sciences Accreditation Board (May 28, 1997). Computer Science as a Profession. Archived from the original on 2008-06-17. Retrieved on 2010-05-23.</ref><ref>Committee on the Fundamentals of Computer Science: Challenges and Opportunities, National Research Council (2004). Computer Science: Reflections on the Field, Reflections from the Field. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-09301-9. </ref> CSAB, formerly called Computing Sciences Accreditation Board—which is made up of representatives of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), and the IEEE Computer Society (IEEE CS)<ref>CSAB Leading Computer Education. CSAB (2011-08-03). Retrieved on 2011-11-19.</ref>—identifies four areas that it considers crucial to the discipline of computer science: theory of computation, algorithms and data structures, programming methodology and languages, and computer elements and architecture. In addition to these four areas, CSAB also identifies fields such as software engineering, artificial intelligence, computer networking and communication, database systems, parallel computation, distributed computation, human–computer interaction, computer graphics, operating systems, and numerical and symbolic computation as being important areas of computer science.<ref name="CSAB1997"/>

Theoretical computer science

Theoretical Computer Science is mathematical and abstract in spirit, but it derives its motivation from practical and everyday computation. Its aim is to understand the nature of computation and, as a consequence of this understanding, provide more efficient methodologies. All papers introducing or studying mathematical, logic and formal concepts and methods are welcome, provided that their motivation is clearly drawn from the field of computing.

Theory of computation

Main article: Theory of computation

According to Peter Denning, the fundamental question underlying computer science is, "What can be (efficiently) automated?"<ref name="Denning_cs_discipline">Denning, Peter J. (2000). "Computer Science: The Discipline" (PDF). Encyclopedia of Computer Science. </ref> Theory of computation is focused on answering fundamental questions about what can be computed and what amount of resources are required to perform those computations. In an effort to answer the first question, computability theory examines which computational problems are solvable on various theoretical models of computation. The second question is addressed by computational complexity theory, which studies the time and space costs associated with different approaches to solving a multitude of computational problems.

The famous P = NP? problem, one of the Millennium Prize Problems,<ref>Clay Mathematics Institute P = NP Template:Webarchive</ref> is an open problem in the theory of computation.

96px 96px P = NP? GNITIRW-TERCES 96px
Automata theory Computability theory Computational complexity theory Cryptography Quantum computing theory

Information and coding theory

Information theory is related to the quantification of information. This was developed by Claude Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data.<ref>P. Collins, Graham (October 14, 2002). Claude E. Shannon: Founder of Information Theory. Scientific American. Retrieved on December 12, 2014.</ref> Coding theory is the study of the properties of codes (systems for converting information from one form to another) and their fitness for a specific application. Codes are used for data compression, cryptography, error detection and correction, and more recently also for network coding. Codes are studied for the purpose of designing efficient and reliable data transmission methods.

Algorithms and data structures

Algorithms and data structures is the study of commonly used computational methods and their computational efficiency.

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Analysis of algorithms Algorithms Data structures Combinatorial optimization Computational geometry

Programming language theory

Programming language theory is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features. It falls within the discipline of computer science, both depending on and affecting mathematics, software engineering, and linguistics. It is an active research area, with numerous dedicated academic journals.

<math>\Gamma\vdash x: \text{Int}</math> 96px 96px
Type theory Compiler design Programming languages

Formal methods

Main article: Formal methods

Formal methods are a particular kind of mathematically based technique for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems. The use of formal methods for software and hardware design is motivated by the expectation that, as in other engineering disciplines, performing appropriate mathematical analysis can contribute to the reliability and robustness of a design. They form an important theoretical underpinning for software engineering, especially where safety or security is involved. Formal methods are a useful adjunct to software testing since they help avoid errors and can also give a framework for testing. For industrial use, tool support is required. However, the high cost of using formal methods means that they are usually only used in the development of high-integrity and life-critical systems, where safety or security is of utmost importance. Formal methods are best described as the application of a fairly broad variety of theoretical computer science fundamentals, in particular logic calculi, formal languages, automata theory, and program semantics, but also type systems and algebraic data types to problems in software and hardware specification and verification.

Applied computer science

Applied computer science aims at identifying certain computer science concepts that can be used directly in solving real world problems.

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) aims to or is required to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, learning and communication found in humans and animals. From its origins in cybernetics and in the Dartmouth Conference (1956), artificial intelligence research has been necessarily cross-disciplinary, drawing on areas of expertise such as applied mathematics, symbolic logic, semiotics, electrical engineering, philosophy of mind, neurophysiology, and social intelligence. AI is associated in the popular mind with robotic development, but the main field of practical application has been as an embedded component in areas of software development, which require computational understanding. The starting-point in the late 1940s was Alan Turing's question "Can computers think?", and the question remains effectively unanswered although the Turing test is still used to assess computer output on the scale of human intelligence. But the automation of evaluative and predictive tasks has been increasingly successful as a substitute for human monitoring and intervention in domains of computer application involving complex real-world data.

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Machine learning Computer vision Image processing
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Pattern recognition Data mining Evolutionary computation
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Knowledge representation Natural language processing Robotics

Computer architecture and engineering

Computer architecture, or digital computer organization, is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It focuses largely on the way by which the central processing unit performs internally and accesses addresses in memory.<ref>A. Thisted, Ronald (April 7, 1997). Computer Architecture. The University of Chicago.</ref> The field often involves disciplines of computer engineering and electrical engineering, selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance, and cost goals.

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Digital logic Microarchitecture Multiprocessing
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Ubiquitous computing Systems architecture Operating systems

Computer performance analysis

Main article: Computer performance

Computer performance analysis is the study of work flowing through computers with the general goals of improving throughput, controlling response time, using resources efficiently, eliminating bottlenecks, and predicting performance under anticipated peak loads.<ref>Wescott, Bob (2013). The Every Computer Performance Book, Chapter 3: Useful laws. CreateSpace. ISBN 1482657759. </ref>

Computer graphics and visualization

Computer graphics is the study of digital visual contents, and involves synthesis and manipulation of image data. The study is connected to many other fields in computer science, including computer vision, image processing, and computational geometry, and is heavily applied in the fields of special effects and video games.

Computer security and cryptography

Main articles: Computer security and Cryptography

Computer security is a branch of computer technology, whose objective includes protection of information from unauthorized access, disruption, or modification while maintaining the accessibility and usability of the system for its intended users. Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding (encryption) and therefore deciphering (decryption) information. Modern cryptography is largely related to computer science, for many encryption and decryption algorithms are based on their computational complexity.

Computational science

Computational science (or scientific computing) is the field of study concerned with constructing mathematical models and quantitative analysis techniques and using computers to analyze and solve scientific problems. In practical use, it is typically the application of computer simulation and other forms of computation to problems in various scientific disciplines.

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Numerical analysis Computational physics Computational chemistry Bioinformatics

Computer networks

Main article: Computer network

This branch of computer science aims to manage networks between computers worldwide.

Concurrent, parallel and distributed systems

Concurrency is a property of systems in which several computations are executing simultaneously, and potentially interacting with each other. A number of mathematical models have been developed for general concurrent computation including Petri nets, process calculi and the Parallel Random Access Machine model. A distributed system extends the idea of concurrency onto multiple computers connected through a network. Computers within the same distributed system have their own private memory, and information is often exchanged among themselves to achieve a common goal.

Databases

Main article: Database

A database is intended to organize, store, and retrieve large amounts of data easily. Digital databases are managed using database management systems to store, create, maintain, and search data, through database models and query languages.

Human-computer interaction

Research that develops theories, principles, and guidelines for user interface designers, so they can create satisfactory user experiences with desktop, laptop, and mobile devices.

Software engineering

Main article: Software engineering
See also: Computer programming

Software engineering is the study of designing, implementing, and modifying software in order to ensure it is of high quality, affordable, maintainable, and fast to build. It is a systematic approach to software design, involving the application of engineering practices to software. Software engineering deals with the organizing and analyzing of software—it doesn't just deal with the creation or manufacture of new software, but its internal maintenance and arrangement. Both computer applications software engineers and computer systems software engineers are projected to be among the fastest growing occupations from 2008 to 2018.

The great insights of computer science

The philosopher of computing Bill Rapaport noted three Great Insights of Computer Science:<ref>What Is Computation?. buffalo.edu.</ref>

All the information about any computable problem can be represented using only 0 and 1 (or any other bistable pair that can flip-flop between two easily distinguishable states, such as "on/off", "magnetized/de-magnetized", "high-voltage/low-voltage", etc.).
See also: Digital physics
  • Alan Turing's insight: there are only five actions that a computer has to perform in order to do "anything".
Every algorithm can be expressed in a language for a computer consisting of only five basic instructions:
  • move left one location;
  • move right one location;
  • read symbol at current location;
  • print 0 at current location;
  • print 1 at current location.
See also: Turing machine
  • Corrado Böhm and Giuseppe Jacopini's insight: there are only three ways of combining these actions (into more complex ones) that are needed in order for a computer to do "anything".
Only three rules are needed to combine any set of basic instructions into more complex ones:
  • sequence: first do this, then do that;
  • selection: IF such-and-such is the case, THEN do this, ELSE do that;
  • repetition: WHILE such-and-such is the case DO this.
Note that the three rules of Boehm's and Jacopini's insight can be further simplified with the use of goto (which means it is more elementary than structured programming).
See also: Elementary function arithmetic#Friedman's grand conjecture

Academia

{{#invoke:labelled list hatnote|labelledList|Further information}} Conferences are important events for computer science research. During these conferences, researchers from the public and private sectors present their recent work and meet. Unlike in most other academic fields, in computer science, the prestige of conference papers is greater than that of journal publications.<ref> (April 2009) "Viewpoint: Research evaluation for computer science". Communications of the ACM 25 (4): 31–34. DOI:10.1145/1498765.1498780. </ref><ref>Evaluating Computer Scientists and Engineers For Promotion and Tenure. Computing Research Association (August 1999).</ref> One proposed explanation for this is the quick development of this relatively new field requires rapid review and distribution of results, a task better handled by conferences than by journals.<ref> (August 2009) "Viewpoint: Time for Computer Science to Grow Up". Communications of the ACM 52 (8): 33–35. DOI:10.1145/1536616.1536631. </ref>

Education

Since computer science is a relatively new field, it is not as widely taught in schools and universities as other academic subjects. For example, in 2014, Code.org estimated that only 10 percent of high schools in the United States offered computer science education.<ref>"Computer Science: Not Just an Elective Anymore", Education Week, February 25, 2014. </ref> A 2010 report by Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) revealed that only 14 out of 50 states have adopted significant education standards for high school computer science.<ref>Running On Empty (October 2010).</ref> However, computer science education is growing.<ref>How to Teach Computational Thinking—Stephen Wolfram Blog.</ref> Some countries, such as Israel, New Zealand and South Korea, have already included computer science in their respective national secondary education curriculum.<ref>"A is for algorithm", The Economist, April 26, 2014. </ref><ref>Computing at School International comparisons. Retrieved on 20 July 2015.</ref> Several countries are following suit.<ref>"Adding Coding to the Curriculum", New York Times, March 23, 2014. </ref>

In most countries, there is a significant gender gap in computer science education. For example, in the US about 20% of computer science degrees in 2012 were conferred to women.<ref>IT gender gap: Where are the female programmers?. Retrieved on 20 July 2015.</ref> This gender gap also exists in other Western countries.<ref name="gender">IT gender gap: Where are the female programmers?.</ref> However, in some parts of the world, the gap is small or nonexistent. In 2011, approximately half of all computer science degrees in Malaysia were conferred to women.<ref>what gender is science. Retrieved on 20 July 2015.</ref> In 2001, women made up 54.5% of computer science graduates in Guyana.<ref name="gender"/>

See also

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Notes

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References

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Further reading

Overview
  • Tucker, Allen B. (2004). Computer Science Handbook, 2nd, Chapman and Hall/CRC. ISBN 1-58488-360-X. 
    • "Within more than 70 chapters, every one new or significantly revised, one can find any kind of information and references about computer science one can imagine. […] all in all, there is absolute nothing about Computer Science that can not be found in the 2.5 kilogram-encyclopaedia with its 110 survey articles […]." (Christoph Meinel, Zentralblatt MATH)
  • van Leeuwen, Jan (1994). Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-72020-5. 
    • "[…] this set is the most unique and possibly the most useful to the [theoretical computer science] community, in support both of teaching and research […]. The books can be used by anyone wanting simply to gain an understanding of one of these areas, or by someone desiring to be in research in a topic, or by instructors wishing to find timely information on a subject they are teaching outside their major areas of expertise." (Rocky Ross, SIGACT News)
  • (2000) Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th, Grove's Dictionaries. ISBN 1-56159-248-X. 
    • "Since 1976, this has been the definitive reference work on computer, computing, and computer science. […] Alphabetically arranged and classified into broad subject areas, the entries cover hardware, computer systems, information and data, software, the mathematics of computing, theory of computation, methodologies, applications, and computing milieu. The editors have done a commendable job of blending historical perspective and practical reference information. The encyclopedia remains essential for most public and academic library reference collections." (Joe Accardin, Northeastern Illinois Univ., Chicago)
  • Edwin D. Reilly (2003). Milestones in Computer Science and Information Technology. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-57356-521-9. 
Selected literature
Articles
Curriculum and classification

External links

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Bibliography and academic search engines
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Misc

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