Cabinet of the Philippines
In Philippine politics, the Cabinet consists of the heads of the largest part of the executive branch of the national government. Currently, it includes the secretaries of 18 executive departments and the heads of other several other minor agencies and offices that are subordinate to the President of the Philippines. The foundation date of various departments that compose the cabinet vary, depending on whether their origin can be traced to the First Republic or during the American era. The listing of cabinet officials is particularly complicated during World War II, when there were two governments, the Commonwealth of the Philippines first in unoccupied areas and then in exile, and the various governments established by the Japanese.
List of the Cabinet heads
Until the Tejeros Convention in 1897, government functions were conducted by the Katipunan. The convention decided to replace the Katipunan with a provisional revolutionary government. This was in turn replaced by the Biak na Bato Republic which in turn was disbanded because of the Pact of Biak na Bato. The Revolutionary movement was then led in exile by the Hong Kong Junta. The Revolution resumed in May, 1898 and resulted in what is officially considered the first actual (in contrast to provisional or preparatory) government, that of the First Republic. Constitution of the First Republic explicitly stated the government ministries to be formed.
Mabini Cabinet (January 21, 1899 - May 7, 1899)
- Apolinario Mabini - Foreign Affairs, Prime Minister.
- Mariano Trias - Finance
- Teodoro Sandico - Interior
- Baldomero Aguinaldo - War
- Gracio Gonzaga - Welfare
Paterno Cabinet (May 7, 1899 - November 13, 1899)
- Pedro Paterno - Prime Minister
- Leon Ma. Guerrero - Agriculture, Industry and Commerce
- Hugo Ilagan - Finance
- Felipe Buencamino - Foreign Affairs
- Severino de las Alas - Interior
- Aguedo Velarde - Public Instruction
- Maximo Paterno - Public Works and Communications
- Mariano Trias - War
Under the Philippine Commission, and then after the Philippine Legislature established a bicameral legislature, the American colonial government established cabinet offices appointed by the Governor-General of the Philippines, that continued up to the Commonwealth of the Philippines. The Executive power was wielded by the Governor-General of the Philippines. Among cabinet officials, Filipinos and Americans held various posts, except for that of Secretary of Public Instruction, which was reserved for an American, specifically, the Vice Governor-General.
Commonwealth of the Philippines
With autonomy achieved, the President of the Philippines appointed the cabinet.
Philippine Executive Commission
Established in response to a directive from the Imperial Japanese Army, the Philippine Executive Commission assumed administrative responsibility over government in Japanese-occupied areas of the country.
War Cabinet of the Commonwealth
The existence of war resulted in the consolidation of cabinet portfolios and the formation of a war cabinet. The war cabinet system was reorganized several times.
The Second Republic replaced the Philippine Executive Commission. Cabinet officials gave up the title of commissioners and became known as ministers.
Restoration of the Commonwealth
The Commonwealth of the Philippines was restored on Philippine soil in October, 1944, and formally restored in terms of its authority in February, 1945.
After recognition of Philippine Independence in 1946 by the United States, the former Commonwealth now as a Republic under the 1935 Constitution continues its function stated therein until 1972 when Marcos declared Martial Law and wielded dictatorial rule.
In 1978, under the 1973 Constitution a Parliamentary Form of governance was established and departments were renamed into ministries establishing the formal ministry system since the First Republic but under Marcos' dictatorial will. In 1981, Martial Law was lifted, the regular Parliament convenes with Cesar Virata being voted Prime Minister and as well as Finance Minister.
Under her revolutionary powers, President Corazon Aquino abolished the system of government ministries and restored the department system. With the ratification of the 1987 Constitution, this change became permanent.