Bukidnon is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Northern Mindanao region. Its capital is Malaybalay City. The province borders, clockwise starting from the north, Misamis Oriental, Agusan del Sur, Davao del Norte, Cotabato, Lanao del Sur, and Lanao del Norte.
|Region||Northern Mindanao (Region X)|
|Governor||Jose Ma. R. Zubiri|
|Area|| 8,293.8 km²|
|Total (2000)|| 1,060,265|
People and culture
According to oral history of the indigenous people of Bukidnon, there were four main tribes in Central Mindanao: the Maranao who dwell in Lanao del Sur, and the Maguindanao, Manobo and Talaandig who respectively inhabit the eastern, southern, and north-central portions of the original province of Cotabato. When the civil government divided central Mindanao into provinces at the turn of the 20th century, the groups included in the province of Bukidnon are the Talaandig and the Manobo. The Bisayans, Cebuano, Boholanos and Ilonggos migrated into the province followed by various groups from Luzon, namely, the Ilocanos, Batangueños, the Igorots and the Ivatans. All contributed massive acculturation among the indigenous tribes. Most of those who moved to the mountains and forest continued to hold on their ancestors’ cultural heritage. The wide variety of Filipino groups now thrives in the province and contributed immensely in the socio-economic development.
Bukidnon became a part of Misamis in the latter part of 1850. The whole area was then called Malaybalay (few houses) and the people were known as Bukidnons (mountain people). The Philippine Commission then headed by Commissioner Dean C. Worcester, Secretary of Interior and a member of the Philippine Commission proposed the separation of Bukidnon from Misamis Province. On August 20, 1907, the Philippine Commission Act No. 1693 was enacted the Province of Agusan and sub- province of Bukidnon. Bukidnon became a regular province on March 10, 1917 by virtue of the creation of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu under Act 2711.
The traditional culture of Bukidnon is a pride to all. The cultures and traditions are embodied in oral folk literature of the province which are classified into; “Antoka” (riddles), “Basahan” (proverbs or wise sayings), “Kalingoan” (ceremonial songs), “Limbay” (lyric poem), “Sala” (love song) and “Nanangon” (folktales). Religion is monotheistic. They believe in one God. “Magbabaya” (the ruler of all) has minor gods and goddesses under his command (Example: “Bulalakaw” watches rivers and lakes, Tumpas Nanapiyaw” or “Itumbangol” watches the basses of the earth night and day lost in crumbles).
The Bukidnons have different degrees of acculturation. The first-degree Bukidnons are those leading the most traditional life style. This includes those who lived remote from any center of lowland habitation, deep in the forest and along the watershed of the main rivers. The second-degree Bukidnons lived near the fringes and directly within the bounds of the lowlanders. The third-degree Bukidnons are highly assimilated and are generally able to send their children off to school. The fourth degree Bukidnons have fully assimilated the ways of urban living and hardly acknowledge the old ways of their background. The fifth degree Bukidnons are largely recent immigrants from their other parts of the Philippine archipelago and have made Bukidnon as their permanent home.
Bukidnon is an agricultural economy. it is a major producer of rice, maize, sugar, coffee, rubber, pineapple, tomato, flowers, cassava, and other fruits and vegetables. It is also a major producer of chickens, hogs and cattle. Almost all large firms operating in the province are into production or processing of these agricultural products. Del Monte Philippines, Inc. (DMPI), Lapanday Diversified Products Corp. and Mt. Kitanglad Agri-Development Corp. are engaged in pineapple production. Dole Philippines (Skyland) and Mt. Kitanglad Agri-Ventures, Inc. are into banana production. DMPI is also engaged in cattle fattening. Bukidnon Sugar Milling Corporation (BUSCO) and Crystal Sugar Milling are into sugar milling and refining. Phil-Agro Industrial Corporation is in starch production. Menzi Agricultural Development is in cacao production. Agaropyta Phils. Inc., Bukidnon Greens Inc., FP Obrero Farms and ARDEM, Inc. is in cutflower production. Food manufacturing giants, San Miguel Foods Corp. (SMFI_PFC), Monterey Farms Corp., Swift Foods, Inc. have intensified their contract breeding and growing operations in the province. Valencia Rubbertex, Inc., an 80-20 Japanese-Filipino joint venture produces rubber boots and rubber shoes for Japan. As one of the major anchors in crop production, Bukidnon is moving forward towards establishing its position as a principal trader of rice, corn, sugar, potato, tomato and many other commercial and industrial crops. As the second largest producer of corn in the country, it reached a total production of 481,370 Mt. In year 2000. vast tracks of cornfields, rice paddles and sugar plantations are distributed all over the province. Bukidnon has already assumed its role as producer and supplier of fresh fruits and vegetables. These produce are either sold in domestic markets or exported to Japan and other neighboring countries. Fresh pineapples, banana, sugarcane and cutflower grown over the years are among its exports. New agri-business industries are still growing. Even export of rubber boots and shoes, an infant industry in the province is increasing tremendously. Wide variety of resource-based handicrafts are extensively produced from rattan, bamboo and wood. San Fernando is known for its rattan furniture. Bamboo baskets, woodwares and carvings, mats and other handmade products are ideal souvenir items.